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Final-Exam-Study-Questions--Bio 104 Campbell ReeseCh-44-50-Questions and answers summer 2019

Chapter 44 1. Body fluids of an osmoconformer would be ________ with its _________ environment. a. hyperosmotic; freshwater b. isotonic; freshwater c. hyperosmotic; saltwater d. isoosmotic; saltwater e. hyposmotic; saltwater 2. A freshwater fish was accidently placed in salt water, and died after several minutes. Why? a. Loss of water by osmosis in cells in vital organs resulting in cell death and organ failure. b. Salt diffused into all of the fish’s cells causing them to swell and lyse. c. The kidneys were not able to keep up with the water removal necessary in the hyperosmotic environment. d. The gills became encrusted with salt, causing inadequate gas exchange and asphyxiation. e. Brain cells lysed due to increased osmotic pressure in a hyperosmotic environment. 3. Where does urea come from? a. glycogen in the liver b. NH3 and CO2 in the liver c. glucose in the kidneys d. glycerol in the kidneys e. uric acid and water in the bladder 4. What is the advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than ammonia? a. urea can be exchanged for sodium ions b. urea is less toxic than ammonia c. urea requires more water for excretion than ammonia d. urea does not affect the osmolar gradient e. less nitrogen is removed from the body 5. The transfer of fluids from the glomerulus to Bowman’s capsule a. results from active transport b. transfers large molecules as easily as small ones c. is very selective as to which subprotein sized molecules are transferred d. is mainly a consequence of blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus e. usually includes the transfer of red blood cells to the Bowman’s capsule 6. What substance is secreted by the proximal-tubule cells and prevents the pH of urine from becoming too acidic? a. bicarbonate b. salt c. glucose d. ammonia e. NaOH 7. Proper functioning in the human kidney requires considerable active transport of sodium in the kidney tubules. If active transport were to stop completely, you would produce a higher / lower than normal amount of hyperosmotic / hypoosmotic / isoosmotic urine. 8. Which structure contains blood in a normally functioning nephron? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 9. Which structure passes urine to the renal pelvis? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 10. Which structure descends deep into the renal medulla only in juxtamedullary nephrons? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 11. Which structure increases the reabsorption of Na when stimulated by aldosterone? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 12. Processing of filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules accomplishes what important function? a. sorting plasma proteins according to size b. converting toxic ammonia to less toxic urea c. maintaining a constant pH in body fluids d. regulating the speed of blood flow through the nephron e. reabsorbing urea to maintain osmotic balance 13. What is unique about the transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle in humans? a. They are the largest epithelial cells in the body. b. They are not in contact with interstitial fluid. c. Their membranes are impermeable to water. d. 50% of their cell mass is comprised of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. e. They are not affected by high levels of nitrogenous wastes. 14. What causes the increased urine production after drinking alcoholic beverages? a. increased aldosterone b. increased blood pressure c. inhibition of ADH d. increased reabsorption of water in the proximal tubule e. osmoregulator cells in the brain increase their activity 15. __ADH____ monitors appropriate osmolarity by reabsorption of water, and __RAAS__ maintains osmolarity by stimulating Na reabsorption, thus maintaining homeostasis. Chapter 45 16. What is the mode of action of aspirin and ibuprofen? a. They inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. b. They inhibit the release of nitric oxide, a vasodilator. c. They block paracrine signaling pathways. d. They stimulate the release of oxytocin. e. They stimulate the release of endorphins. 17. A cell that contains proteins enabling a hormone to selectively bind to its plasma membrane is called a(n) a. secretory cell b. plasma cell c. endocrine cell d. target cell e. regulatory cell 18. Which hormone would you expect to be active in times of food shortages? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 19. Which hormone would you expect to be expressed in high levels during extreme stress? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 20. Which hormone would you expect to be active during active labor and uterine contractions? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 21. Which hormone would you expect to be active following a large meal? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 22. Which hormone would you expect to be lower in someone who has ingested alcohol? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 23. If a person ingests large volumes of water in a short period of time, he or she might die of water toxicity. ADH can prevent water retention through interaction with target cells in the a. anterior pituitary b. posterior pituitary c. adrenal gland d. bladder e. kidney 24. Iodine is added to commercially-prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies. Which gland requires iodine to function properly? a. parathyroids b. adrenal c. thyroid d. pancreas e. pituitary 25. Blood samples taken from a fasting individual should normally exhibit a. high levels of insulin b. high levels of glucagon c. low levels of insulin d. low levels of glucagon e. Both B and C f. Both A and D Manny Ramirez was suspended for 50 games when he tested positive for LH and HCG, fertility drugs commonly used to treat women. (HCG is produced by the placenta!) These hormones affect men by stimulating production of testosterone and can be prescribed to men whose testicles do not function due to long-term steroid abuse. Another fun fact about proper kidney functioning and the excretion of those “other toxins”: Asparagus, a green vegetable belonging to the lily family, has one notorious side effect for some diners who eat enough of it. Within a half-hour of asparagus consumption, some people notice their urine has acquired a very pungent odor, often compared to rotting cabbage, ammonia or rotten eggs. The effects of asparagus on urine are generally fleeting and harmless, but it's not necessarily the consumer's finest hour, bodily excretion-wise. The good news is that asparagus does not affect everyone. Studies conducted on the "asparagus urine" phenomenon (aren't you glad you didn't volunteer!) indicate that roughly 40 to 50 percent of those tested developed the distinctive odor. Surprisingly enough, there is also a segment of the population who cannot smell the sulphurous fumes of asparagus-laced urine. It is believed that both the generation of the odoriferous urine and the ability to smell it are based on genetics. Only those with a certain gene can break down the chemicals inside the asparagus into their smelly components, and only those with the proper gene can smell the results of that chemical breakdown. Scientists are still not entirely sure which set of chemical compounds contained in asparagus actually cause the smelly pee. The stalks themselves do not acquire a similar odor as they are prepared, so whatever happens most likely happens after ingestion. Experts believe that those with a certain gene produce a digestive enzyme which breaks down the asparagus into various chemical compounds. One of those compounds is called methyl mercaptan, which is the same chemical which gives a skunk its defensive smell. One theory suggests that asparagus breaks down quickly in the body and an enzyme releases methyl mercaptan, which eventually goes through the kidneys and is excreted as a waste product in the urine. Others suggest that the asparagus smell is created by other chemical compounds called thioesters. There is also a compound called asparagusic acid, which is not surprisingly found primarily in asparagus. If these compounds are broken down and mixed with the genetically-created enzyme, the results could be a strong smelling urine. This smell is actually considered to be good news, since it proves that the asparagus eater's kidneys are functioning as they should. Nagoya J Med Sci. 1996 Dec;59(3-4):135-42. Human blood lactate and ammonia levels after supramaximal uphill and downhill running. Itoh H, Ohkuwa T, Yamazaki Y, Miyamura M. Department of Physical Education, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan. Abstract The purposes of this study were 1) to confirm whether there is a difference in the levels of blood lactate and ammonia after supramaximal uphill and downhill running for the same short duration and 2) to examine the relationship between peak blood lactate levels and work/lean body mass (LBM), as well as the relationship between peak blood ammonia levels and work/LBM following supramaximal uphill and downhill running. Eight healthy, untrained male subjects performed supramaximal uphill and downhill running on a motor-driven treadmill for about 70 sec. Though there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in running speed and work/LBM between supramaximal uphill and downhill running, no significant difference was found in exhaustion time or heart rate. Both the peak blood lactate and ammonia concentrations were significantly lower after downhill running than after uphill running (p < 0.05). Although there was no significant relationship between peak blood ammonia levels and work/LBM following either uphill or downhill running, significant linear relationships between the peak blood lactate levels and work/LBM were observed following uphill running (r = 0.74, p < 0.05) and downhill running (r = 0.72, p < 0.05). These results suggest that the differences in the blood lactate and ammonia concentration between supramaximal downhill and uphill running of the same duration may be due to the total recruitable muscle mass during exercise, and that peak blood lactate can be used as an index of anaerobic work capacity for untrained subjects under these running conditions. Chapter 46 26. An oocyte released from a human ovary enters the oviduct as a result of a. the beating action of the flagellum on the oocyte b. the force of the follicular ejection directing the oocyte into the oviduct c. the wavelike beating of cilia lining the oviduct d. movement of the oocyte through the pulsing uterus into the oviduct e. peristaltic contraction of ovarian muscles 27. In humans, the follicular cells that remain behind in the ovary following ovulation become a. ovarian endometrium shed at the time of menses b. a steroid-hormone synthesizing structure called the corpus luteum c. the thickened portion of the uterus wall d. swept into the fallopian tube e. the placenta, which secretes the cervical mucus 28. Sperm cells are stored within human males in the a. urethra b. prostate c. epididymis d. seminal vesicles e. bulbourethral gland 29. Among human males, both urine and semen travel along the a. vas deferens b. urinary bladder c. seminal vesicle d. urethra e. ureter 30. Most of the noncellular fluid component of semen is made up of a. secretions of the seminiferous tubules b. secretions of the bulbourethral glands c. secretions of the seminal vesicles d. secretions of the prostate gland e. anticoagulant enzymes 31. What are the three phases of the ovarian cycle? Follicular ! Ovulation ! Luteal 32. What are the three phases of the uterine cycle? Menstrual ! Proliferative ! Secretory 33. A primary response of the Leydig cells in the testes to the presence of LH is an increase in the synthesis and secretion of a. inhibin b. testosterone c. oxytocin d. prolactin e. progesterone 34. Ovulation is the follicular response to a burst of secreted a. LH b. progesterone c. inhibin d. prolactin e. estradiol 35. Prior to ovulation, the steroid hormone secreted by a growing follicle is a. LH b. progesterone c. inhibin d. prolactin e. estradiol 36. The primary function of the corpus luteum is to a. nourish and protect the egg cell b. produce prolactin in the alveoli c. maintain progesterone and estrogen synthesis after ovulation d. stimulate mammary gland development e. support pregnancy in the second and third trimesters 37. This embryonic hormone maintains progesterone and estrogen secretion by the corpus luteum through the first trimester: a. LH b. FSH c. progesterone d. HCG e. GnRH 38. This hypothalamic hormone triggers the secretion of FSH: a. LH b. FSH c. progesterone d. HCG e. GnRH 39. The marker for pregnancy that is detectable in excreted urine is a. LH b. FSH c. progesterone d. HCG e. GnRH 40. Labor contractions can be increased by the use of a synthetic drug that mimics the action of a. inhibin b. LH c. oxytocin d. prolactin e. vasopressin 41. Tubal ligation a. reduces the incidence of ovulation b. prevents fertilization by preventing sperm from entering the uterus c. prevents implantation of an embryo d. prevents sperm from exiting the urethra e. prevents oocytes from entering the uterus 42. Vasectomy a. eliminates spermatogenesis b. eliminates testosterone synthesis c. prevents implantation of an embryo d. prevents sperm from exiting the urethra e. prevents oocytes from entering the uterus 43. Time-release progesterone implants function in contraception by a. inhibiting the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH b. blocking progesterone receptors in the uterus c. irritating the uterine lining to prevent implantation d. thickening the cervical and uterine mucus to impair sperm movement e. binding to and inactivating sperm that enter the oviduct 44. “Combination” birth control pills function in contraception by a. inhibiting the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH b. blocking progesterone receptors in the uterus c. irritating the uterine lining to prevent implantation d. thickening the cervical and uterine mucus to impair sperm movement e. binding to and inactivating sperm that enter the oviduct 45. RU486 functions in contraception by a. inhibiting the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH b. blocking progesterone receptors in the uterus c. irritating the uterine lining to prevent implantation d. thickening the cervical and uterine mucus to impair sperm movement e. binding to and inactivating sperm that enter the oviduct

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