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[Solved] Organizing for Action Final Exam Study Guide

MGMT 4313 Organizing for Action Final Exam Study Guide Organizing for Action - Final Exam Study Guide Organizational Theory and Design Richard Daft Final Exam Study Guide There are also assigned articles on Oklahoma history which are not covered in this study guide 1. ____ refers to the quality of interactions among people and whether they share a common perspective. 2. Culture exists at two levels called: 3. All of the following are visible artifacts of culture except: 4. Organizational culture: 5. ____ means that members develop a collective identity and know how to work together effectively. 6. When a student finishes his studies at a college, he goes through a graduation ceremony with the idea of soon finding a new social role. This is an example of a rite of: 7. Which of the following is an example of the rite of integration in corporate culture? 8. ____ refers to how the organization meets goals and deals with outsiders. 9. Which of the following is (are) manifestation(s) of corporate culture? All of these 10. Stories in an organization which are used to perpetuate culture are based on: 11. Nordstrom's upside-down organization chart is an example of ____ being used to convey organizational culture to all employees. 12. Which of the following is not one of the four categories of culture? 13. The relationship of environment and strategy to corporate culture is plotted in our text on a matrix that has the following two dimensions: 14. What type of culture exists in a stable environment with an external strategic focus? 15. The ____ culture is characterized by strategic focus on the external environment through flexibility and change to meet customer needs. 16. The mission culture places major emphasis on: 17. A leader who ____ would thrive in a clan culture. 18. The ____ culture has an internal focus and a consistency orientation for a stable environment. 19. Most managers are shifting away from bureaucratic cultures because of a need for: 20. The degree of agreement among members of an organization about the importance of specific values is referred to as: 21. ____ develop to reflect the common problems, goals, and experiences that members of a team, department, or other unit share. 22. It has been found that a learning organization has a strong organizational culture characterized by which of the following value(s)? 23. When behavior is governed by a set of moral principles and values, it is called: 24. The ____ arises from a set of codified principles and regulations that describe how people are required to act, are generally accepted in society, and are enforceable in the courts. 25. ____ are principles that guide the decisions and behaviors of managers with regard to whether they are right or wrong in a moral sense. 26. A(n) ____ arises in a situation concerning right and wrong where values are in conflict. 27. ____ is an extension of the idea of managerial ethics and refers to management's obligation to make choices and take action so that the organization contributes to the welfare and interest of all organizational stakeholders. 28. A relationship between a leader and followers that is based on shared, strongly internalized values that are advocated and acted upon by the leader is referred to as: 29. Formal structure and formal systems that can be used to shape ethical values include all of the following except: 30. Ethical training programs may include: 31. _____ is (are) the set of values, norms, guiding beliefs, and understandings that is shared by members of an organization and taught to new members as the correct way to think, feel, and behave. 32. Ron recently had an interview at XYZ Clothing Company. As he was touring the organization, he noticed that employees were dressed in flip flops and shorts and that none of the offices had doors. Ron witnessed the _____ level of corporate culture. 33. _____ are consistent with the values and beliefs of the organization but are not supported by facts. 34. Most Internet-based companies use the _____ type of culture, as do many companies in the marketing, electronics, and cosmetics industries. 35. At Anheuser-Busch InBev, professionalism, ambition, and aggressiveness are key values. Managers keep employees focused on achieving high sales and profit levels, and those who meet the demanding goals are handsomely rewarded. Bonuses and promotions are based on performance, not seniority. Anheuser-Busch InBev embodies a _____ culture. 36. Which of the following is not true regarding managers in non-constructive cultures? 37. A _____ measures and reports the ethical, social, and environmental impact of a company’s operations. 1. Today it should be recognized that: 2. ____ are changes in an organization's production process that enable distinctive competence. 3. The four strategic types of change highlighted in our text include which of the following categories? 4. The four strategic types of change highlighted in our text include all of the following categories except: 5. The type of change which will have direct impact on the administrative domain in an organization is called ____ change. 6. ABC Credit Union began offering a "Sweep Account," in which funds over $500 in a checking account would be "swept" into a money-market, interest-bearing, account until the checking account reached $100, at which point, funds from the money market account would be "swept" back into the checking account. This is an example of a ____ change. 7. Coming up with a new way of doing things is the ____ step of the change process. 8. The adoption of an idea or behavior that is new to the organization's industry, market, or general environment is referred to as: 9. Which of the following types of change refers to changes in the values, attitudes, expectations, beliefs, abilities, and behavior of employees? 10. Which of the following is not given as an essential element for successful change? 11. ____ occurs when decision makers choose to go ahead with a proposed idea. Adoption 12. ____ occurs when organization members actually use a new idea, technique, or behavior. 13. The flexibility of a(n) ____ organization is attributed to people's freedom to be creative and introduce new ideas. 14. The ambidextrous approach refers to: 15. ____ means an organization creates an organic structure when such a structure is needed for the initiation of new ideas. 16. A(n) ____ provides a safe harbor where ideas from employees throughout the organization can be developed without interference from company bureaucracy or politics. 17. A venture team: 18. Corporate entrepreneurship: 19. A(n) ____ is a separate, small, informal, highly autonomous, and often secretive group that focuses on breakthrough ideas for the business. 20. A(n) ____ provides financial resources for employees to develop new ideas, products, or businesses. 21. When it comes to new product success rate, only ____ percent of all projects originally undertaken achieved economic success. 22. All of the following were concluded in the study called Project SAPPHO except: 23. Key components of organization design contributing to successful new product innovation are: 24. It has been found that new products will be more successful if: 25. In the horizontal coordination model, the ____ component means that each department involved with new products has excellent linkage with relevant sectors in the external environment. 26. ____ means extending the search for and commercialization of new products beyond the boundaries of the organization and even beyond the boundaries of the industry. 27. Delivering products and services faster than competitors, giving companies a competitive edge is referred to as: 28. Organizations can be conceptualized as having two cores: a(n) ____ and a ____. 29. The point of the ____ is that many organizations must adopt frequent administrative changes and need to be structured differently from organizations that rely on frequent technical and product changes for competitive advantages. 30. Technical innovation is facilitated by a(n) ____ process and a(n) ____ structure, while administrative change best occurs as a result of a(n) ____ process and a(n) ____ structure. 31. Which of the following is not a force for culture change? 32. Organizational development often entails large group intervention that involves: 33. ____ focuses on the human and social aspects of the organization as a way to improve the organization's ability to adapt and solve problems. 34. When an organization development consultant brings together a group to discuss and solve problems such as conflicts, goals, decision making, or communication, the intervention technique is called: 35. Organizational barriers to change include all of the following except: 36. Which of the following is not an environmental demand for change as described by the text? 37. CDs all but wiped out the phonograph indusry, and now Apple’s iPod and streaming music from companies such as Europe’s Spotify are threatening the same fate for CDs. Netflix’s approach to delivering movies through the mail and via streaming was a change for Blockbuster, which ultimately filed for bankruptcy. These are all examples of _____ change. 38. _____ is the generation of novel ideas that may meet perceived needs or respond to opportunities. 39. Mike Hall, CEO of Borrego Solar Systems, holds internal “innovation challenge’ contests on the company intranet to get his shy, introverted engineers to speak up with their ideas for improving the business. Employees vote on their favorites and the winner takes home a cash prize. Borrego Solar Systems utilizes which of the following approaches? 40. In a survey conducted by IBM and Industry Week magazine, _____ percent of respondents identified collaborating with customers and suppliers as having the most significant impact on product development time-to-market. 41. Clothing retailer Zara gets new styles into stores twice a week. Russell Stover got a line of low-carb candies, called Net Carb, on store shelves within three months after perfecting the recipe, rather than the typical twelve months. These are examples of _____ competition. 42. Which of the following is not a barrier to change? 1. Which stage of the organizational decision making process occurs when alternative courses of action are considered and one alternative is selected and implemented? 2. ____ are repetitive and well-defined, and procedures exist for resolving the problem. 3. Bounded rationality: 4. Which type of decision-making would typically be used to the extent possible in an objective process of selection of a new employee? 5. When Tom Smith, CEO of Food Lion reads Modern Grocer, visits other grocery stores to compare prices, and reviews daily sales figures, he is doing activities in which of the following steps of the rational approach? 6. The rational approach to decision making involves all of the following steps except: 7. Which step in the rational approach immediately follows developing alternative solutions? 8. Which of the following is the step in the decision making process in which the manager digs below the surface to analyze the cause of the problem? 9. The stage in which alternative courses of action are considered and one is chosen and implemented is: 10. The first four steps of the rational approach to decision making are specifically designed to help a manager: 11. Which of the following is not recognized as a constraint and trade-off during nonprogrammed decision making? 12. Intuitive decision making uses ____ to make decisions. 13. Intuitive decision processes would work best when which of the following factors were dominant: 14. The management science model for decision making is best to use when: 15. Management science works best for decisions when problems: 16. A company that uses a computerized system extensively in their production process from the design stage through the automatic ordering of raw materials through preparation for delivery would be using which type of organizational decision making? 17. The Carnegie model of organizational decision making says that organizational decisions: 18. A small university department was comprised of six male faculty members. During faculty meetings when the department was faced with a difficult decision, a faculty member would suggest they take a break. During the break, four faculty would adjourn to the coffee room and agree on the decision that would be made. This is an example of: 19. ____ means organizations accept a satisfactory rather than a maximum level of performance, enabling them to achieve several goals simultaneously. 20. The incremental decision process model places emphasis on: 21. The incremental decision model is based on research showing that: 22. Which of the following are characteristics of organized anarchies? 23. In the garbage can model of decision making: 24. The garbage can model shows: 25. Which of the following is not one of the four streams relevant to organizational decision making? 26. In the garbage can model: 27. The agreement among managers about the nature of a problem or opportunity and about which goals and outcomes to pursue is referred to as: 28. ____ refers to understanding and agreement about how to solve problems and reach organizational goals. 29. According to the contingency framework for decision models, the Carnegie Model for organizational decision making should be used when: 30. Only by making mistakes can managers and organizations go through the process of ____ and acquire sufficient experience and knowledge to perform more effectively in the future. 31. The phenomenon known as "escalating commitment" refers to: 32. What process would explain increasing the amount of budget for an ongoing project on which managers received feedback that it was destined for failure? 33. _____ is formally defined as the process of identifying and solving problems. 34. Which of the following is not true regarding decision-making in today’s environment? 35. When eighteenth-century politician and diplomat Benjamin Franklin was faced with a difficult problem, he would divide a sheet of paper into two columns labeled “Pro” and “Con” and write down various reasons for or against a particular decision. Over several days Franklin would narrow down the list based on a system of weighing the value of each pro or con until he reached a determination of the best decision. Franklin’s approach can best be described as a _____ approach. 36. During the pressure-packed five-week Christmas season, Linda Koslow checks out competitors around the mall, eyeing whether they are marking down merchandise. She also scans printouts of her store’s previous day’s sales to learn what is or is not moving. Linda is doing activities in which of the following steps of the rational approach? 37. Which of the following is not an organizational constraint during nonprogrammed decision making? 38. _____ means managers look around in the immediate environment for a solution to quickly resolve a problem. 39. _____ refers to the tendency of people in groups to suppress contrary opinions. 1. ____ is defined as the behavior that occurs among organizational groups when participants identify with one group and perceive that other groups may block their group's goal achievement or expectations. 2. Attributes identified in our text as generating intergroup conflict include all of the following except: 3. The greatest cause of intergroup conflict in organizations is probably: 4. Putting together what you know about the sources of potential conflict and about interdependence, which of the following attributes will create the greatest potential for conflict? 5. Applying what you know about sources of conflict, you could conclude that as task interdependence moves from pooled to reciprocal interdependence: 6. When goals are in alignment, there is little differentiation, departments are characterized by pooled interdependence, and resources seem abundant. Managers can use ____ of organization. 7. ____ is the potential ability of one person/department to influence other persons/departments to carry out orders or do something they would not otherwise have done. 8. Which model of organization often prevails because each department has different interests it wants met and different goals it wants to achieve? 9. Which type of power does a manager enjoy because of his right to promote subordinates? 10. Legitimate power comes from: 11. People have authority in an organization because of: 12. Relative to power, the concept of formal authority is: 13. In distinguishing between power and authority, we learned that power is: 14. Vertical sources of power include all of the following except: 15. Being centrally located in the organization and having access to information and people that are critical to the company's success is referred to as: 16. For lower level employees, network centrality: 17. ____ is power sharing, the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in an organization. 18. ____ is difficult to measure because power differences are not defined on the organization chart. 19. Strategic contingencies refer to: 20. Dependency power is derived from: 21. Which of the following is not one of strategic contingencies that influence horizontal power among departments? 22. One measure of ____ is the extent to which the work of the department affects the final output of the organization. 23. Which of the following means that a department's function cannot be performed by other readily available resources? 24. We know which of the following about horizontal power? 25. Which of the following was not a reaction of managers toward political behavior uncovered in surveys? 26. ____ involves activities to acquire, develop, and use power and other resources to influence others and obtain the preferred outcome when there is uncertainty or disagreement about choices. 27. ____ is a mechanism for arriving at consensus when uncertainty is high and there is disagreement over goals or problem priorities. 28. All of the following, except ____ are the domains of political activity. 29.Which of the following is a political tactic for increasing power? 30. Which of the following is not a political tactic for using power? 31. Confrontation as a method of reducing conflict is likely to be more effective when: 32. ____ are designed to increase worker participation and provide a cooperative model for solving union-management problems. 33. Collective bargaining: 34. The win-win strategy of negotiation: 35. _____ is rivalry among groups in the pursuit of a common prize, whereas conflict presumes direct interference with goal achievement. 36. Generally, as interdependence increases, the potential for conflict: 37. Which of the following is not a tactic for enhancing collaboation? 38. John is a manager at XYZ Inc. His subordinates respect him, and several have made comments such as, “I want to be as good a manager as he is one day.” He is highly respected and admired. John holds _____ power. 39. Empployees at Brazil-based company Seneco are permitted to control their work hours, location, and even pay plans. Employees also participate in all organization decisions, including what businesses Semco should pursue. Employees at Seneco are _____. 40. Gary is a manager at YMZ Company. One day, when Gary was swamped with work, his colleague, Charles, offered to help Gary with some of his work. Charles finished writing some reports for Gary and made phone calls for him. A month later, when Charles was overwhelmed with work, Gary felt obligated to help him. This example best illustrates which of the following?

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