NR 503 Week 4 Midterm (Summer 2019) Exam with answers – Chamberlain college (A grade) | NR503 Week 4 Midterm (Summer 2019) Exam with answers - €13,97   In winkelwagen

Meer samenvattingen voor NR503 bekijken? Bekijk al het beschikbare studiemateriaal op de NR503 overzichtspagina 

Tentamen (uitwerkingen)

NR 503 Week 4 Midterm (Summer 2019) Exam with answers – Chamberlain college (A grade) | NR503 Week 4 Midterm (Summer 2019) Exam with answers

NR 503 Week 4 Midterm (Summer 2019) Exam with answers – Chamberlain college (A grade) Endemic means that a disease: A. Occurs clearly in excess of normal expectancy B. Is habitually present in human populations C. Affects a large number of countries simultaneously D. Exhibits a seasonal pattern E. Is prevalent among animals Table who ate egg salad & who did not eat egg salad Total number of persons who ate each specified combination of food items Ate tuna Did not eat tuna Ate egg salad 75 100 Did not eat egg salad 200 50 Total number of persons who ate each specified combination of food items & who later became sick (with acute sore throats) Ate tuna Did not eat tuna Ate egg salad 60 75 Did not eat egg salad 70 15 What is the sore throat attack rate in persons who ate both egg salad & tuna a. 60/75 b. 70/200 c. 60/133 d. 60/275 e. None of the above According to the results shown in the preceding tables, which of the following food items (or combination of food items) is most likely to be infective? a. Tuna only b. Egg salad only c. Neither tuna nor egg salad d. Both tuna & egg salad e. Cannot be calculated from the data In the study of an outbreak of an infectious disease, plotting an epidemic curve is useful because: a. It helps to determine what type of an outbreak (e.g. single-source, person-to-person) has occurred b. It shows whether herd immunity has occurred c. It helps to determine the median incubation period d. A & c e. A,b, & c Which of the following is characteristic of a single-exposure, common-vehicle outbreak? a. Frequent secondary cases b. Increasing severity with increasing age c. Explosive d. Cases include both people who have been exposed & those who were not exposed e. All of the above At an initial examination in Oxford, Mass migraine headaches was found in 5 of 1,000 men aged 30 to 35 years & in 10 of 1,000 women aged 30 to 35 years. The inference that women have a two times greater risk of developing headaches than do men in this group is: Incorrect because of failure to distinguish between incidence & prevalence A prevalence survey conducted from January 1 through December 31, 2012 identified 1,000 cases of schizophrenia in a city of 2,000,000 persons. The incidence rate of schizophrenia in this population is 5/100,000 persons each year. What percent of the 1,000 cases were diagnosed in 2012? 10% Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance? More accurate due to reduced reporting burden for health care providers What would be the effect on age specific incidence rate of uterine cancer if women with hysterectomies were excluded from the denominator of the calculations, assuming that there are some women in each age group who have had hysterectomies? The rates would tend to increase A survey was conducted among the non-hospitalized adult populations of the united states during 2008 through 20122. The results from this survey are shown below. Age group Persons with HTN % 18-29 4 30-39 10 40-49 22 50-59 43 60-69 54 70 & older 64 The researchers stated that there was an age related increase in the risk of hypertension in this population. You conclude that the researchers interpretation: Is incorrect because the prevalence is used Next two questions relate to the information below: Population of the city of Atlantis on March 30, 2012 = 183,000 No of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 & June 30, 2012 = 26 No of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2012 =264 The incidence rate of active cases for the 6 month period was: 26/183,000 x 100,000 = 14 per 100,000 The prevalence rate of active TB for the month of June was: 264/183,000 x 100,000 = 144 per 100,000 The following two questions are based on information provided below: In an Asian country with a popularion of 6 million people, 60,000 deaths occurred during the year ending December 31, 2010. These included 30,000 deaths from cholera in 100,000 people who were sick with cholera. What was the cause specific mortality rate from cholera in 2010? Number of deaths from cholera in one year x 1,000 Number of people within the populations at midyear 30,000/6,000,000 x 1,000= 5/ 1,000 What was the case fatality from cholera in 2010? Case fatality: 
 number of individuals dying during a specific time after onset of diagnosis X 100 number of individuals with the specified disease 30,000/100,000 x 100 = 30% Age adjusted death rates are used to: Eliminate the effects of differences in the age distributions of populations in comparing death rates The mortslity rate from disease X in city A is 75/100,000 in persons 65 to 69 years old. The mortality rate from the same disease in city b is 150/100,000 in persons 65 to 69 years old. The inference that disease X is two times more prevalent in persons 65 to 69 years old in city B than it is in persons 65 to 69 years old in city a is: Incorrect, because of failure to distinguish between prevalence & mortality The incidence rate of a disease is five imes greater in women thn in men, but the prevalences rates show no sex difference. The best explantiaon is that: The case fatality rate from this disease is greater in women For a disease such as pancreatic cancer, which is highly fatal & of short duration: Incidence & mortality rates will be similar Annual Cancer Deaths in white Male workers in two industries Industry A Industry B Cancer site # of deaths % of all cancer deaths # of deaths % of all cancer deaths Respiratory system 180 33 248 45 Digestive system 160 29 160 29 Genitourinary 80 15 82 15 All other sites 130 23 60 11 Totals 550 100 550 100 Based on the preceding information, it was concluded that workers in industry B are at higher risk of death from respiratoy system cancer than workers in industry A. (Assume that the age distributions of the workers in the two industries are nearly identical.) Which of the following statements is true? The conclusion reached may be incorrect because proportionate mortality was used when cause-specific mortality rates were needed. A program manager from an international health funding agency needs to identify regions that would benefit from an intervention aimed at reducing premature disability. The program manager asks a health care consultant to develop a proposal using an index that would help her make this decision. Which of the following would best serve this purpose? Disability-adjusted life-years The following are st&ardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for lung cancer in Engl&: St&ardized mortality ratios Occupation 1949-1960 1968-1979 Carpenters 209 135 Bricklayers 142 118 Based on the SMRs alone, it is possible to conclude that: The rate of death from lung cancer in carpenters in 1968-1979 was greater than would have been expected for a group of men of similar ages in all occupations. A screening tests is used in the same way in two similar populations, but the proportion of false positive results among those who test positive in population A is lower than that among those who test positive in population B. What is the likely explanation for this finding? The prevalence of disease is higher in population A A physical examination & an audiometric test were given to 500 persons with suspected hearing problems, of whom 300 were actually found to have them. The results of the examination were as follows Physical examination Hearing Problems Result Present Absent Positive 240 40 Negative 60 160 Audiometric Test Hearing Problems Result Present Absent Positive 270 60 Negative 30 140 Compares with the physical examination , the audiometric test is: More sensitive & less specific Two pediatricians want to investigate a new laboratory test that identifies strep infections. Dr. Kidd uses the st&ard culture test, which has a sensitivity of 90% & a specificity of 96%, Dr. Childs uses the new test which is 96% sensitive & 96% specific. If 200 patients undergo culture with both tests which of the following is correct? Dr. Kidd will correctly identify fewer people with strep infection than Dr. Childs Which of the following is a good index of the severity of a short term acute disease? Case-fatality A diagnostic test has been introduced that will detect a certain disease 1 year earlier than it is usually detected. Which of the following is most likely to happen to the disease within the 10 years after the test is introduced? (Assume that early detection has no effect on the natural history of the disease. Also assume that no changes in death certification practices occur during the 10 years. The apparent 5 year survival will increase Which of the following statements about relative survival rate is true? It is generally closer to observed survival in young population Before reporting the results of this survival analysis, the investigation compared the baseline characteristics of the 42 persons who withdrew from the study before its end with those of the participants who had complete follow up. This was done for which of the following reasons: To check whether those who remained in the study represent the total study population The major purpose of r&om assignment in a clinical trial is to: Reduce selection bias in the allocation of treatment An advertisement in a medical journal stated that “2,000 subjects with sore throats were treated with our new medicine, within 4 days 94% were asymptomatic” The advertisement claims that the medicine was effective. Based on the evidence given above the claim: May be incorrect because no control or parison group was involved The purpose of a double blind or double masked study is to: Avoid observer bias & subject bias In many studies examining in the association between estrogens & endometrial cancer of the uterus, a one sided significance test was used. The underlying assumption justifying a one-sided rather than a two-sided test is: The expectation before doing the study was that estrogens cause endometrial cancer of the uterus In a r&omized trial, a planned crossover design: Must take into account the problem of possible residual side effects of the first therapy A r&omized trial comparing the efficacy of two drugs showed a difference between the two (with a P value <0.05). Assume that in reality, however, the two drugs do not differ. This is therefore an example of: Type 1 error (alpha error) All of the following are potential benefits of a r&omized control trial, except: The external validity of the study is increased In cohort studies of the role of a suspected factor in the etiology of a disease, it is essential that: The exposed & non-exposed groups under study be as similar as possible with regard to possible confounding factors Which of the following is not an advantage of a prospective cohort study It usually costs less than a case control study Retrospective cohort studies are characterized by all of the following except The required sample size is smaller than that needed for a prospective cohort study A major problem resulting from the lack of r&omization in a cohort study is: The possibility that a factor that led to the exposure, rather than the exposure itself, might have caused the disease In a cohort study, the advantage of starting by selecting a defined population for study before any of its member become exposed, rather than starting by selecting exposed & non-exposed individuals is that: A number of exposures can be studied simultaneously A case control study is characterized by all of the following except: a) It is relatively inexpensive compared with most other epidemiologic studies b) Patients with the disease (cases) are compared with persons without the disease (controls) c) Incidence rates may be computed differently d) Assessment of past exposure may be biased e) Definition of cases may be difficult Residents of three villages with three different types of water supply were asked to participate in a survey to identify cholera carriers. Because several cholera deaths had occurred recently, virtually everyone present at the time underwent examination. The proportion of resident in each village who were carriers was computed & compared. What is the proper classification for this study? Cross sectional Study Which of the following is a case control study? Obtaining histories & other information from a group of known cases & from a comparison group to determine the relative frequency of a characteristic or exposure under study In a study begin in 1965, a group of 3,000 adults in Baltimore were asked about alcohol consumption. The occurrence of cases of cancer between 1981 & 1995 was studied in this group. This is an example of: A prospective cohort study In a small pilot study, 12 women with endometrial cancer & 12 women with no apparent disease were contacted & asked whether they had ever used estrogen. Each woman with cancer was matched by age, race, weight, & parity to a woman without the disease. What kind of study design is this? Case-Control study The physical examination records of the entire incoming freshman class of 1935 at the University of Minnesota were examined in 1977 to see if their recorded height & weight at the time of admission to the university was related to the development of coronary artery disease by 1968. This is an example of: A retrospective cohort study In a case control study, which of the following is true? a) The proportion of cases with the exposure is compared with the proportion of controls with exposure b) Disease rates are compared for people with the factor of interest & for people without the factor of interest c) The investigator may choose to have multiple comparison groups d) Recall bias is a potential problem In which one of the following types of study designs does a subject serve his own control? Case-crossover study Ecologic fallacy refers to: Ascribing the characteristics of a group to every individual in that group In a study of disease in which all cases that developed were ascertained, if the relative risk for the association between a factor & the disease is equal to or less than 1.0, then: There is no association or a negative association between factor & the disease Rates of ASHD per 10,000 population, by age & sex, Framingham massachusetts Mens Womens Age at beginning of study ASHF rates at initial exam Yearly follow up exams ASHD rates at initial exam Yearly follow up exams 29-34 76.7 19.4 0.0 0.0 35-44 90.7 40.0 17.2 2.1 45-54 167.6

Voorbeeld 2 van de 13  pagina's

Martinfreeman

Voordelen van het kopen van samenvattingen bij Stuvia op een rij:

Verzekerd van kwaliteit door reviews

Verzekerd van kwaliteit door reviews

Stuvia-kopers hebben meer dan 450.000 samenvattingen beoordeeld. Zo weet je zeker dat je de beste documenten koopt!

Snel en makkelijk kopen

Snel en makkelijk kopen

Je betaalt supersnel en eenmalig met iDeal, creditcard of Stuvia-tegoed voor de samenvatting. Zonder lidmaatschap.

Focus op de essentie

Focus op de essentie

Samenvattingen worden geschreven voor en door anderen. Daarom zijn de samenvattingen altijd betrouwbaar en actueel. Zo kom je snel tot de kern!

13,97
  • (0)
  Kopen