NR 503 Midterm Review Guide updated 2019/2020 – Chamberlain college of Nursing | NR503 Midterm Review Guide updated 2019/2020 - €17,30   In winkelwagen

Meer samenvattingen voor NR503 bekijken? Bekijk al het beschikbare studiemateriaal op de NR503 overzichtspagina 

Tentamen (uitwerkingen)

NR 503 Midterm Review Guide updated 2019/2020 – Chamberlain college of Nursing | NR503 Midterm Review Guide updated 2019/2020

NR 503 Midterm Review Guide updated 2019/2020 – Chamberlain college of Nursing Chapter 1-4 1. Which of the following is a condition which may occur during the incubation period? -Transmission of infection. 2. Chicken pox is a highly communicable disease. It may be transmitted by direct contact with a person infected with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The typical incubation time is between 10-20 days. A boy started school 2 weeks after showing symptoms of chicken pox including mild fever, skin rash, and fluid-filled blisters. One month after the boy returned to school, non of his classmates had been infected by VZV. The main reason was: -Contact was after infectious period. 3. The ability of a single person to remain free of clinical illness following exposure to infectious agent is known as: -immunity 4. Which of the following is characteristic of single-exposure, common-vehicle outbreak? -The epidemic curve has a normal distribution when plotted against the logarithm of time. Involve a sudden, rapid increase in cases of disease that are limited to persons who share a common exposure. 5. What is the diarrhea attack rate in persons who ate both ice cream and pizza? -39/52 (The attack rate is defined as the number of people who develop diarrhea divided by the total number of people at risk. 6.What is the OVERALL attack rate in persons who did not eat ice cream? -33% (The attack rate is the # of persons with diarrhea (14 9) divided by the total # of persons who did not eat ice cream (40 30) 7.Which of the food items (or combination of items) is most likely to the infective item(s)? -ice cream only (only 70% developed diarrhea regardless of their pizza consumption (39/52 and 11/15). Among both groups of persons who did not eat ice cream, each attack rate was equal to or less than 35% (14/40 and 9/30). 8. Which of the following reasons can explain why a person who did not consume the infective food item got sick? -All of the above (They were directly exposed to persons who did eat the infective food item, diarrhea is general symptom consistent with a number of illnesses, there may have been an inaccurate recall of which foods were eaten) 9.An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a boarding school with a student enrollment of 846. 57 students reported symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, and low-grade fever between 10 p.m. on 9/24 and 8 p.m. on 9/25. The ill students lived in dormitories that housed 723 of the students. The table below provides information of the # of students per type of residence and the # reporting illnesses consistent with the described symptoms and onset time. Calculate the attack rate among all students at the boarding school. -6.7% (divide the total number of cases (57) by the total number of students (846). 10. Same question above Calculate the attack rates for boys and girls separately. 43 boys/426 total boys = 14 girls/420= 11.Same question What is the proportion of total cases occurring in boys? -43/57 = 75.4% 12.Same question What is the proportion of total cases occurring in students who live in dormitories? -52/57 = 91.2% 13.Same question Which proportion is more informative for the purpose of the outbreak investigation? -Both proportions are useful. Dormitory residents account for over 90% of the cases indicating an outbreak of an infectious agent that was transmitted at the school. Furthermore, over 75% o the cases were boys indicating that the responsible agent was more likely to have been transmitted in the boys dormitory. 14. A group of researchers are interested in conducting a clinical trial to determine whether a new cholesterol-lowering agent was useful in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD). They identified 12,327 potential participants for the trial. At the initial clinical exam, 309 were discovered to have CHD. The remaining subjects entered the trial and were divided equally into the treatment and placebo groups. Of those in the treatment group, 505 developed CHD after 5 years of follow-up while 477 developed CHD during the same period in the placebo group. What was the prevalence of CHD at the initial exam? -The prevalence of CHD at the initial exam was 309 cases of CHD divided by 12, 327 participants. This equals a prevalence of 25.1 cases of CHD per 1,000 persons. 15.Same question What was the incidence of CHD during the 5-year study? -The incidence rate reflects the # of new cases developing in the population at risk. Since prevalent CHD cases were excluded from the study, the population at risk was 12,018 (12,327 persons less 309 cases CHD). During the 5-year study period, 982 incident cases of CHD developed. This equals an incidence rate of 81.7 cases of CHD per 1,000 persons. 16.Which of the following are examples of population prevalence rate? -The # of persons with hypertension per 100,000 population. (The # of affected persons in a specified population size at a given time. 17.What would be the effect on age-specific incidence rates of uterine cancer if women with hysterectomies were excluded from the denominator of incidence calculation assuming that most women who have hysterectomies are older than 50 years of age? -Rates would increase in women older than 50 years of age but may decrease in younger women as they get older. 18.A survey was conducted among 1,000 randomly sampled adult males in the United States in 2005. The results from this survey are shown below. The researchers stated that there was a doubling of risk of hypertension in each age group younger than 60 years of age. You conclude that the researcher’s interpretation: -Is incorrect because prevalence rates are estimated. Since no duration-incidence can not be calculated. 19. The incidence and prevalence rates of a chronic childhood illness for a specific community are given below. -The duration of disease is becoming shorter. 20.A prevalence survey conducted from January 1 through December 21, 2003 identified 580 new cases of TB in a city of 2 million persons. The incidence rate of TB in this population has historically been 1 per 4,000 persons each year. What is the incident rate of TB per 100,000 persons in 2003? -29 new cases of TB per 100,000 persons. This is found by dividing the new cases of TB by the total population at risk (580/2,000,000) and multiplying this rate by 100,000 to standardize the rate. 21. Same info as above, Has the risk of TB increased or decreased during 2003? -The risk of TB increased over the historic incident rate. The comparison can be made by standardizing the historic rate to a rate per 100,000 persons. To do this, multiply the numerator and denominator by 25. 22.Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance? -Entails a concerted effort to collect information about disease occurrence. Involves dedicated staff members who have been specifically directed to contact physicians and hospitals in order to collect reports of disease cases. 23. The population of a city on February 15, 2005, was 36,000. The city has a passive surveillance system that collects hospital and private physician reports of influenza cases every month. During the period between 1/1 and 4/1, 2005, 2,200 new cases of influenza occurred in the city. Of these cases, 775 persons were ill with influenza according to surveillance reports on 4/1. The monthly incidence rate of active cases o influenza for the 3-month period was: -20 per 1,000 population (monthly incidence rate is calculated based on the # of new cases of a disease developing during the 3-month period. 24. Same info The prevalence rate of active influenzas as of 4/ 1/ 05. -20 per 1,000 25. Same info –What can be inferred about influenza cases occurring in the city? -The average duration of influenza is approximately 1 month 26.A study found that adults older than age 50 had a higher prevalence of pneumonia than those who were younger than age 50. Which of the following is consistent with this finding? -Incidence rates do not vary by age, but older adults have pneumonia for a longer duration compared to younger adults. 27.Which of the following statements are true? More than one answer may be correct. -Prevalence rates are useful for public health planning -Incidence rates can be used to estimate prevalence when the mean duration of the disease is known. 28. A disease has an incidence of 10 per 1,000 persons per year, and 80% of those affected will die within 1 year. Prior to the year 2000, only 50% of cases of the dease were detected by physician diagnosis prior to death. In the year 2000, a lab test was developed that identified 90% of cases an average of 6 months prior to symptom onset; however, the prognosis did not improve after diagnosis. Comparing the epidemiology of the disease prior to 2000 with the epidemiology of the disease after the development of the lab test, which statement is true concerning the disease in 2000? -Incidence is higher and prevalence is higher than in 1999. 29. Same info- Which statement is true concerning the duration of the disease after the development of the lab test? -Mean duration of a case of the disease is longer in 2000 30. Same info- Which statement is true concerning the disease-specific mortality rate after the development of the lab test? -The mortality rate for the disease is the same in 2000. 31. In a coastal area of a country in which a tsunami struck, there were 100,000 deaths in a population of 2.4 million for the year ending 12/31/2005. What was the all-cause crude mortality rate per 1,000 persons during 2005? -41.7 per 1,000 persons. The rate is calculated by dividing 100,000 deaths by the population of 2,400,000 persons. To express as a rate per 1,000, the rate is multiplied by 1,000. 100,000/2,400,000 X 1,000= 32. In an industrialized nation, there were 192 deaths due to lung disease in miners ages 20 to 64 years. The expected number of deaths in this occupational group, based on age-specific death rates for lung disease in all males ages 20 to 64 years, was 238 during 1990. What was the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung diseases in miners? SMR= observed death for an occupation-cause-race group/expected deaths for an occupation-cause-race group X 100 192/238 X 100= 81% 33. In 2001, a state enacted a law that required the use of safety seats for all children under 7 years of age and mandatory seatbelt use for all persons. The table below lists the number of deaths due to MVAs and the total population by age in 2000 (before the law) and in 2005 (4 years after the law was enacted). What is the age-specific mortality rate due to MVAs for children ages 0 to 18 years in 2000? -149/24,500 X1000= 6.1 per 1,000 34. Same info- using the pooled total of the 2000 and 2005 populations as the standard rate, calculate the age-adjusted mortality rate due to MVAs in 2005. -2.3 MVA deaths per 1,000 persons. The key to calculating the age-adjusted rate is to pool the observed numbers for both time periods and to calculate the expected numbers of deaths in the 2005 population assuming that a common rate applied to the population. For those under 7 years, the pooled rate equals (44 20)/ (3,500 4,000). The pooled rate for this group is 8.5 per 1,000 persons. When this rate is multiplied by the 4,000 children under 7 years of age in 2005, the expected number of deaths is 34.13. Performing the same calculation for each group results in 111.7 deaths in those 7 to 18 years of age, 175.8 deaths in those 19 to 49 years, and 237.35 deaths for those 50 years or more. The TOTAL number of deaths expected in 2005 based on this pooled rate is 558.98. Therefore, the age-adjusted overall rate for 2005 is 558.98 deaths/ 240,000 persons. 35. Same info- Based on the information in the table, it was reported that there was an increased risk of death due to MVAs in the state after the law was passed. These conclusions are: -Correct, because both the total and the age-adjusted mortality rates are higher in 2005 than in 2000. The overall crude (unadjusted) mortality rate is 2.6 per 1,000 persons in 2005. This is found by dividing 640 deaths by a population of 240,000 persons. This rate is then multiplied by 1,000. The overall adjusted mortality rate is 2.3 per 1,000 persons as calculated in question 34. Both of these rates are higher than the overall crude mortality rate of 2.0 per 1,000 persons for the year 2000. 36. For colorectal cancer diagnosed at an early stage, the disease can have 5-year survival rates of greater than 80%. Which answer best describes early stage colorectal cancer? -Incidence rates will be much higher than mortality rates. For disease with a long duration as indicated by high 5-year survival rates for early stage colorectal cancer, the incidence will be much higher than the mortality rate since more persons are being diagnosed with the disease than are dying of it. 37. The following table gives the mean annual age-specific mortality rates from measles during the first 25 years of life in successive 5-year periods. You may assume that the population is in a steady state (migrations out are equal to migrations in). The age specific mortality rates for the cohort born in 1915-1919 are: -2.4, 3.3, 2.0, 0.6, 0.1 38. Same info- based on the information above, one may conclude: -Children ages 5 to 0 had the highest rate of death in all periods. -For each 5-year period, the highest mortality rate is reported among those 5 to 9 years of age. This is seen by comparing the rate for this age group to all other age groups in a row. 39. Which of the following characteristics indicate the mortality rates provide a reliable estimate of disease incidence? More than one answer may be correct. -The case-fatality rate is high and the duration of disease is short. 40. Which of the following statement are true? More than one answer may be correct. -A mortality rate is an example of an incidence rate A mortality rate can approximate an incidence rate under conditions of a high case-fatality rate and a short duration of disease. 41. Among those who are 25 years of age, those who have been driving less than 5 years had 13,700 motor vehicle accidents in 1 year, while those who had been driving for more than 5 years had 21,680 motor vehicle accidents during the same time period. It was concluded from these date that 25-year-olds with more driving experience have increased accidents compared to those who started driving later. This conclusion is: -Incorrect because rates are not reported. The information provided only enumerates motor vehicle accidents in two groups. In order to fully compare these counts, information is needed on the denominator, the number of persons driving in each group, so that rates can be calculated. 42. For a disease such as liver cancer, which is highly fatal and of short duration, which of the following statements is true? Choose the best answer. - Incidence rate will be equal to mortality rates. Since the 5-year survival rate for liver cancer is 4%, most incident cases of liver cancer will result in a premature mortality. In this case, the mortality and incidence rates will be approximately equal. 43. The prevalence rate of a disease is two times greater in women than in men, but the incidence rates are the same in men and women. Which of the following statements may explain this situation? - The case-fatality rate is lower for women Since men and women develop the disease at the same rate, the survival rate in women must be increase in order to increase duration and prevalence. A low case-fatality rate would contribute to an increased duration of the disease. 44. The table below describes the number of illnesses and deaths caused by plague in four communities. The case-fatality rate associated with plague is lowest in which community? -Community C The case-fatality rate equals the number of deaths occurring from plague divided by all persons with the plague. In community c, the CFR is 300 divided by 400, or 60%. This lower than A (67%), B (75%), and D (77%). 45. Same info- The proportionate mortality ratio associated with plague is lowest in which community? -Community D, the proportionate mortality rate equals the number of deaths occurring from plague divided by all persons with the plague. In community D, the PMR if 500/5,000, or 10%. This is lower than A(50%), B(75%), and C(38%) Chapter 5-6 1. In a community-based hypertension testing program called HT-Aware, the detection level for high blood pressure is set at 140mmHg for systolic blood pressure. A separate testing program called HT-Warning in the same community sets the level at 130mmHg for high systolic blood pressure. Which statements are likely to be true? -The sensitivity of HT-Warning is greater than that of HT-Aware and the number of false positives is greater with HT-Warning than with HT-Aware 2. A school nurse examined a population of 1,000 children in an attempt to detect nearsightedness. The prevalence of myopia in this population is known to be 15%. The sensitivity of the examination is 60% and its specificity is 80%. All children labeled as “positive” (i.e., suspected of having myopia) by the school nurse are sent for examination by an optometrist. The sensitivity of the optometrist’s examination is 98% and its specificity is 90%. How many children are labeled “positive” by the school nurse? -There are 150 children with myopia in the school population (15% prevalence among 1,000 children). The school nurse will identify 60% of those who truly have the condition, or 90 cases (60% sensitivity multiplied by 150 myopic children). Further, the school nurse will incorrectly identify 170 false positive cases of myopia among those who do not have the condition (80% specificity multiplied by 850 non-myopic children). The sum of the cases labeled as positive by the school nurse equals 260 children (90 true myopic children plus 170 false positive children). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51. When is odds ratio obtained in a case-control study a reliable approximation of the relative risk for the general population? – All of the above; The exposure distribution among cases is representative of all persons with disease. The exposure opportunity for controls is equivalent to the distribution of exposure opportunities for the population without the disease. When the disease under investigation is rare in the population In a case-control study, the odds ratio is the measure of association most often estimated. In order for this measure to be an approximate estimate of the relative risk, all three conditions must be met. In essence, these conditions imply that both cases and controls are representative of the overall population from which they are sampled and that the rarity of disease occurrence indicates that most persons are not at increased risk for the disease. 52. In a published epidemiologic study investigating infertility related to sexually transmitted diseases (STD), the authors state that 5% of identified cases refused enrollment, 10% of identified cases were lost to follow-up prior to data collection, and 10% of interviewed cases had missing data for one or more key variables describing exposure. Based on this information, which of the following statements is most likely to be true? -There is a potential for selection bias which could be differential with respect to cases and controls The loss of cases for all of the listed reasons indicates that the enrolled cases may not be representative of all persons with infertility under investigation. Therefore, this selection issue would introduce bias when estimating the measure of association between STD history and case status. 53. same info as question 52. After data were gathered for the study, the investigators decided to restrict the analysis to women only, rather than including both men and women in the study. Assuming that sex is a confounder of the exposure–disease relationship under investigation, this decision would have which of the following effects? -Increase internal validity Assuming that sex is a confounder of STD history and infertility, then restricting the analysis to women only would reduce the influence of this variable. This would increase the validity of the results of the study; however, any inferences made from the study estimate would be limited to conclusions about the exposure–disease association in women only. 54. same info. In the primary analysis of the study, the investigators measured exposure as a dichotomous variable (any history of STD compared to no history of STD). In subsequent analyses, the investigators looked at the relationship between specific STDs and infertility. They noted the following measures of association: for past history of gonorrhea, the odds ratio was 2.4 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.3 to 4.4. For past history of chlamydia, the odds ratio was 1.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 1.2 to 2.1. These results indicate that: -The odds ratio for chlamydia is more precise than the odds ratio for gonorrhea When estimating measures of association, the 95% confidence interval is generally used to express the range of the measure under the null hypothesis. The interval covered by the confidence interval is smaller when sample sizes are large such that the potential values of the odds ratio relative to the null hypothesis are contained in a more limited range. In this instance, there is inadequate information to judge the correctness of the other responses such that c is the best answer. 55. If an investigator is analyzing the results of a clinical trial, then applying the “intention to treat” rule means that which type of bias is most likely to result? -Misclassification “intention to treat” indicates that the analysis of the data is conducted such that the subject’s assigned treatment group is retained when estimating the measure of association. For example, this would mean that a subject assigned to the placebo group would be categorized with this “exposure” even if he later took the drug given to the “exposed” group. This assumption has several advantages when information is limited about compliance; however, it is probable that misclassification of exposure could result when applying this rule 56. Investigators wanted to know if some military personnel are more error prone than others and would be a poor risk for training as a pilot. A study was done in which individuals who had injuries during basic training were compared to individuals who had not had an injury during training. Both groups were asked to recall episodes during childhood when they had had accidents that resulted in an injury. The individuals with a training injury reported more incidents during childhood when they had an injury. Therefore, the military command concluded that some persons are more likely to be error prone and that individuals with a childhood injury should be excluded from pilot training.
One commanding officer disagreed with this conclusion. He asked the investigators to design a second study in which all individuals were asked about childhood injuries prior to the start of basic training. The group who reported having a childhood injury was compared to the group who had not had a childhood injury to determine which group had a higher rate of injuries during basic training. At the end of follow-up, there was no difference in the rate of injuries experienced by each group.
What type of design was used for the first study? –Case-control The first study was retrospective and had two groups: those who had a training injury (“cases”) compared to those who did not have a training injury (“controls”). Exposure was assessed after case status and it is highly likely that both investigators and subjects were aware of case status since the subjects had recently finished basic training. 57. same info as question 56. What type of study design was used for the second study? -Prospective cohort The second study was prospective and had two groups: those who reported childhood injury (“exposed”) compared to those who did not have a childhood injury (“nonexposed”). Outcome status was assessed after follow-up through basic training though no information is given that investigators were blinded to exposure status when determining whether or not a training-related injury occurred. info as above. Which study better tests the hypothesis that there is a relationship between childhood injury and subsequent injury during basic training? –Prospective cohort study Since the prospective study establishes a baseline categorization of exposure prior to follow-up for the outcome, this study is a better test of the hypothesis that childhood injury is related to training injury. Given that there may be significant differences in the definition and determinations of injury, it is not surprising that the second study reports no association between the two. 59. same info as above. Which of the following may explain why the two studies observed different results concerning the association between childhood injury and training injury? - Potential recall bias in the case-control study The case-control study reports a positive association between childhood injury and training injury. Since cases were defined by having experienced a training-related injury, it is more likely that they would recall episodes of childhood injury relative to the controls due to their recent experience. 60. In a study of oral contraceptive (OC) use and hypertension, male interviewers for the study found a lower prevalence of OC use among participants than did female interviewers using the same questionnaire. Which term best describes this finding? –Nondifferential misclassification Male interviewers found a lower prevalence of exposure (OC use) among participants in the study whom they interviewed. This lower rate was not associated with case status (presence of hypertension) so the bias would be nondifferential by case group. Therefore, we can expect that cases and controls would be equally likely to be misclassified with regard to past exposure. This would bias the measure of association toward the null. 61. A matched case-control study of sunscreen use during childhood and melanoma results in an odds ratio of 1.0. Cases of melanoma were matched by sex and race to controls who were identified by random digit dialing. What is the most likely explanation for the study’s null finding? -Information bias concerning past sunscreen use It is likely that persons are unable to recall childhood sunscreen use. This would decrease the proportion of exposure for both groups and lead to a bias toward the null that could mask the protective association between childhood sunscreen use and melanoma. 62. Among patients with liver cancer, current alcohol drinkers have a worse prognosis for survival than nondrinkers. What would be the impact on the odds ratio for a case-control study of current alcohol use and liver cancer mortality if prevalent cases were included with incident cases of the cancer? –Decrease the odds ratio when prevalent cases are included Prevalent cases of liver cancer would most likely change their drinking behavior following a diagnosis of liver cancer. This would reduce the odds ratio estimate since fewer cases would report being exposed, while there would be no change in the proportion of controls who reported current drinking. 63. In a cohort study, the reported relative risk was 2.0; however, the investigators concluded that the study likely had a bias away from the null hypothesis, but they concluded that an association did exist between the exposure and the outcome. The true relative risk is most likely: 1.5 Since the investigators concluded that a valid positive association existed between exposure and outcome, the true relative risk must be greater than 1.0. However, the reported relative risk was biased away from the null hypothesis meaning that it was greater than the true measure of association. This would imply that 1.5 is the best estimate for the relative risk. 64. In a case-control study of maternal cigarette smoking as a risk factor for low birth weight, the investigators concluded that mothers of children with low birth weight were more likely to report smoking during pregnancy relative to mothers of children with normal birth weight. The reporting error most likely caused the odds ratio to: Increase above the true value Since exposure was more likely to be reported by mothers of children with low birth weight, the study is also more likely to find an association between smoking and low birth weight due to the increased likelihood of cases being classified as exposed. 65. In a case-control study of obesity and adult-onset asthma, controls are matched to cases on the basis of race and gender. This approach to selection is intended to decrease the influence of which type of bias? –Confounding Since race and gender are likely to be associated with both the exposure (obesity) and outcome (asthma), they could bias the estimated measure of association if not controlled for. Matching is the most efficient way to control for these potential confounders. 66. In a case-control study of computer display exposure and glaucoma, cases and controls were also asked about television watching habits. Errors in recall of exposure to video screens occurred with equal frequency among cases and controls. Which one of the following biases likely occurred? –Nondifferential misclassification Since the investigators concluded that recall errors were equally likely in cases and controls, then the bias would be nondifferential with respect to case status. 67. same info as above. What is the most likely effect of this bias on the measure of association reported by the study? –Underestimated the true relationship Nondifferential misclassification tends to result in an underestimation of the true effect. This is more commonly known as bias toward the null since any true association between exposure and outcome is diluted by the equal likelihood of incorrect exposure recall by both cases and controls. 68. same info as above. Which of the following methods for adjusting for confounding by age is most likely to affect the generalizability of the study findings? –Restriction of study subjects to those less than 50 years old. The findings of a study can be generalizable when the study is representative of the entire population at risk. By restricting the study to persons less than 50 years of age, no conclusions can be made concerning the risk for persons older than this. Since glaucoma tends to be a disease of older persons, the generalizability of the study may be reduced by this restriction. 69. In a cohort study of occupational exposure to a chemical and subsequent incidence of bladder cancer, all workers who smoked were more likely to die of other causes before bladder cancer was diagnosed. What was the effect of this premature mortality on the measure of association reported by the study? –Underestimated the true relationship Since there is no indication that smoking differed by exposure status to the chemical of interest, it is likely that premature mortality reduced the number of bladder cancer cases in both exposed and nonexposed groups. Since this process is nondifferential, the study estimate would be biased toward the null and would underestimate the true relationship. 70. Which of the following statements about person-years is not true? –It is a valid-denominator for estimates of risk for individuals. Person-years are a useful way to measure the rate at which events occur in a group of persons followed for different periods. However, the risk in any person-year may not be the same for different individuals. This may be true when evaluating persons for a disease with a long latency period such as cancer. A study that includes 5,000 persons for 2 years may not have an equivalent underlying risk as a study of 1,000 persons followed for 10 years. Chapter 16-20 1. A large company institutes a new wellness program aimed at improving the health of its 50,000 employees. As a part of the program, all employees are given physical examinations and screening tests. One of the tests given to male employees is the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test with all employees testing positive being referred to their private physician for a thorough examination involving the standard test, a digital rectal examination (DRE). What will happen to the apparent incidence rate of prostate cancer in the company during the first year of this program

Voorbeeld 4 van de 50  pagina's

Martinfreeman

Voordelen van het kopen van samenvattingen bij Stuvia op een rij:

Verzekerd van kwaliteit door reviews

Verzekerd van kwaliteit door reviews

Stuvia-kopers hebben meer dan 450.000 samenvattingen beoordeeld. Zo weet je zeker dat je de beste documenten koopt!

Snel en makkelijk kopen

Snel en makkelijk kopen

Je betaalt supersnel en eenmalig met iDeal, creditcard of Stuvia-tegoed voor de samenvatting. Zonder lidmaatschap.

Focus op de essentie

Focus op de essentie

Samenvattingen worden geschreven voor en door anderen. Daarom zijn de samenvattingen altijd betrouwbaar en actueel. Zo kom je snel tot de kern!

17,30
  • (0)
  Kopen