HIST 104|SOPHIA_US HISTORY 1_FINAL MILESTONE.100 (present-day 2020/2021) A+ guide.
SOPHIA_US. HISTORY 1_FINAL MILESTONE.100 1 Which of the following happened as a result of the French and Indian War? • England gained French lands east of the Mississippi River and Spain got everything to the west. • Native tribes learned they could manipulate the rivalries between France and England for their own benefit. • The bond between colonists and the English back home was strengthened after fighting a common enemy. • France lost all its holdings in North America and the Caribbean, while England retained all of its territory and gained some. CONCEPT The French and Indian War 2 When, "in fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue," what hypothesis was he attempting to prove? • Lands previously unknown to most of Europe existed to the west. • The Atlantic Ocean is smaller than most cartographers at the time believed. • That newer, faster boats from Portugal could reach Asia before the crew's supplies ran out. • The earth is round and therefore Asia could be reached by sailing west. CONCEPT Maritime Exploration 3 Which of the following was a provision of the Compromise of 1850 that appealed to southerners? • Enactment of the Fugitive Slave Act • Abolition of the slave trade in Washington, D.C. • Establishment of a southern presidency • Admission of California into the Union as a slave state CONCEPT The Compromise of 1850 4 Which of the following was an advantage for the Union in the Civil War? • The ability to institute a draft • Home-turf advantage • A significantly larger free population • Long supply lines CONCEPT The Civil War 5 Which statement represents support for the theory of virtual representation? • "Parliament has no authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies." • "Colonists are entitled to all of the rights, liberties and privileges enjoyed by British citizens born and residing in England." • "Members of Parliament represent all citizens of the empire, regardless of who elected them." • "Taxes should be imposed only by directly elected representatives." CONCEPT Think About It: Is Taxation Un-American? 6 Ephraim gives a presentation on the Vietnam War and how it changed the way war is depicted in movies, television and images. Which of the following is most likely a lens with which he is analyzing the past? • Economics • Race • Technology • Culture CONCEPT The Lenses of History 7 Which of the following was a major economic shift in the North in the early 19th century? • The construction of canals and railroads provided northern manufacturers with faster connections to the Atlantic ocean. • Free-labor ideology influenced individuals to believe that they could improve their social class with hard work, education and discipline. • The North increasingly viewed the South and its economy as superior. • Factory work gave workers in the North increasing indepedence and control over their labor. CONCEPT The Northern Economy 8 Which of the following statements reflects the process of commodification? • The movement of people between Europe and the New World intensified. • Europeans profited by bringing tobacco from the New World back to Europe. • European nations competed for access to the New World's resources. • Merchants established sea routes to meet demand for luxury items. CONCEPT The Columbian Exchange 9 What was one difficulty associated with the Proclamation of 1763? • Many land speculators continued to illegally buy native lands in secret. • Native tribes that wanted to sell their land no longer could. • Unable to print their own money, colonists had a harder time paying taxes. • Many colonists believed it deprived them of their right to trial by jury. CONCEPT The Aftermath of the French and Indian War 10 Which of the following statements would most likely have been spoken by a Democrat during the Jacksonian era? • “I see President Andrew Jackson as exercising tyrannical power.” • “Andrew Jackson is an ideal leader because he represents ordinary Americans.” • "We celebrate industrial advances and a spirit of improvement and innovation." • "We are alarmed by the tyrannical power displayed in the destruction of the national bank." CONCEPT The Bank War and the Rise of the Second Party System 11 Nathanael Greene was an important figure in the Revolutionary War. Select the statement that correctly identifies him. • "I realized that if I divided my troops, I could defeat the British army." • “I was in command of the military government in Charleston after the Americans' largest loss of the war.” • “I commanded the military government in Charleston after our troops forced its surrender.” • “To sustain the Revolution through the winter months, I launched surprise attacks at Trenton and Princeton.” CONCEPT The American War for Independence, 1775 - 1783 12 For what purpose was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution? • To satisfy Thomas Jefferson's demand that a framework by which new rights could be added to the Constitution be established • To separate the three branches of government from each other, as promised to the Federalists during ratification • To satisfy a commitment made to Anti-Federalists during ratification to clarify the unalienable rights that all Americans possess • To satisfy Alexander Hamilton's concern that too much power was being concentrated in the hands of the people CONCEPT Federalists in Power 13 Which of the following factors contributed to the racialization of slavery in the New World? • A high mortality rate among African parents left a lot of orphans, who were easily enslaved. • African workers refused to work for pay in America, so they were enslaved. • Africans were well educated and could help increase efficiency on plantations. • Skin color was an easy way to differentiate slaves from freepersons. CONCEPT African Society and Slavery 14 Which of the following statements best describes the situation in Central America prior to the arrival of Spanish conquistadores? • Many native peoples resented the Aztec rulers and were ready to rebel. • The Aztec were a nomadic people, thinly spread through what is now Mexico. • The Aztec and Inca had been engaged in a centuries-long war for what is now Mexico City. • Native cultures like the Aztec and Tlaxcalan were content to coexist peacefully. CONCEPT Spanish Contact 15 Which of the following did many young women see as a positive aspect of working in the Lowell mills? • Women were only expected to work 4-6 hours a day, giving them ample free time. • There was a greater amount of leeway toward social norms in the mills than in the women's families. • Employers encouraged the formation of labor unions and negotiated win-win contracts. • Working apart from the family with other young women created a sense of independence and solidarity. CONCEPT Market Revolution and Economic Changes 16 Which of the following actions would be considered salutary neglect? • Colonial governors are appointed by the crown and play an active role in governance. • English officials petition the crown for writs of assistance to aid their investigations of smuggling. • Colonists accused of violating the Navigation Acts are routinely broken out of prison by their compatriots. • Colonial ship owners easily get away with selling enumerated goods to nations other than Britain. CONCEPT England Strengthens its Imperial Colonies 17 Consider the following statement: "Women can no longer sit by and submit to their husbands, who are like slave masters over them." Which of the following principles or movements would the speaker most likely support? • Republican Motherhood • The Abolitionist Movement • Separate Spheres Ideology • The Seneca Falls Convention CONCEPT Women's Activism in the Early 19th Century 18 Which element of Manifest Destiny is reflected in the following statement? "Westward expansion will help solidify the economy and the United States as a nation." • Divine mission • Republicanism • Safety valve • White supremacy CONCEPT Manifest Destiny 19 Which of the following quotations—from documents associated with the American, French and Haitian revolutions—exemplifies social contract theory? • “...considering that ignorance, neglect or contempt of the rights of man are the sole causes of public misfortunes and governmental corruption...” • “The demands of the citizens may always tend toward maintaining the constitution and the general welfare.” • “ ...That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it...” • “Restored to our primitive dignity, we have asserted our rights; we swear never to yield them to any power on earth.” CONCEPT The American Revolution in a Global Context 20 "Living in the Americas is an opportunity to find adventure and new business prospects." The above statement is most representative of which group of European explorers? • Spanish • Dutch • English • French CONCEPT Think About It: How Did Europeans Justify Colonization of the New World? 21 Which of the following complicated Jefferson's ability to create an "empire of liberty" in the west? • Private citizens were not entitled to any property in the Western territories. • Native Americans were to be given their own lands in the west, under the jurisdiction of the federal government. • Much of the land was claimed by Native Americans, who were forced to give it up. • The United States didn't have enough people yet to settle the newly acquired lands. CONCEPT Looking West 22 Which of the following factors contributed to many Americans voting strictly along party lines? • Voting was a public affair, so people often felt pressure to vote in a particular way. • Third parties were made illegal under the Alien and Sedition Acts, signed by John Adams. • Ballots were secret, making it easier for a person to vote along party lines. • Revolutionary ideology emphasized loyalty to one's political party regardless of the candidates. CONCEPT The Promise and Limits of Democracy 23 How did intellectual leaders like Thomas Jefferson and Dr. Samuel George Morton justify the legal differences between whites and blacks? • They argued that blacks were inferior because they were unable to prevent themselves from becoming slaves. • They created pseudo-scientific arguments regarding the intellectual capacity of those of African descent. • They suggested that, although blacks and whites shared a common lineage, a history of servitude had degraded the African race. • They claimed that, if slavery were not justifiable, it would not be nearly as common across time and place. CONCEPT Slavery in the United States in the 19th Century 24 Read an excerpt from Lincoln's 1864 speech in Baltimore: “Having determined to use the negro as a soldier, there is no way but to give him all the protection given to any other soldier. The difficulty is not in stating the principle, but in practically applying it. It is a mistake to suppose the government is indifferent to this matter, or is not doing the best it can in regard to it...” What does Lincoln's speech reveal about the participation of Black soldiers in the Civil War? • Lincoln was concerned that they could face more severe consequences from southerners than white soldiers. • Lincoln objected to using African Americans as soldiers, as they were untested in battle. • Lincoln wanted to convince African Americans that participating in the war would help them be free. • Lincoln thought freed slaves should fight on behalf of those still enslaved in the South. CONCEPT Perspectives on Emancipation 25 Which resource spurred French commercial activity in America? • Silver found in rich deposits • Furs from animals like beavers • Corn grown by the native peoples • Lumber from dense forests CONCEPT French and Dutch Contact