Contemporary Marketing 14th Edition by Gene Boone -Test Bank - €24,50   In winkelwagen

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Contemporary Marketing 14th Edition by Gene Boone -Test Bank

Contemporary Marketing 14th Edition by Gene Boone -Test Bank 1. Consumer behavior refers to the process of ultimate buyers making purchasing decisions. Kurt Lewin’s model of human behavior defines behavior as a function of the interactions of 2. personal influences and pressures exerted on them by outside environmental forces. 3. To better understand how consumers make buying decisions, marketers borrow extensively from the sciences of physics and biology. 4. Generally speaking, human behavior is primarily a function of pressures exerted by outside environmental forces on the individual. 5. Kurt Lewin’s theory of human behavior has been modified by marketers to create a model for understanding consumer behavior. In the adaptation, consumer behavior (B) is a function of the interactions of interpersonal influences (I) and personal factors (P), or essentially B = f (I, P). 6. According to Kurt Lewin’s theory of human behavior, among the personal factors that come into play affecting consumer behavior are one’s attitudes, learning and perception. 7. The only inputs that affect a consumer’s purchasing decisions are those provided by his or her psychological makeup. 8. Culture can be defined as values, beliefs, preferences, and tastes that are handed down from one generation to the next. 9. Culture is the narrowest interpersonal determinant of consumer behavior. 10. The core values of American culture include humanitarianism and the desire to accumulate wealth. 11. While some cultural values change over time, basic core values do not. 12. The United States and Europe are finding that cultural influences are growing less important in determining the purchasing behavior of consumers. Dale and Lisa, ranchers from Wyoming, found that the meat of their large, slow-growing hogs were not selling in American grocery stores. However, the animals command premium prices in Japan where the meat is enjoyed for its flavor and fat content. The purchasing influence they 13. are experiencing is a cultural influence. 14. When using an e-tail Web site, the UK audience becomes frustrated if there is no clear information on which geography the Web site covers. Often, they will assume the site will not ship to them and move on. American audiences are more accepting of Web sites that do not designate geography, and assume the site will ship to their location. This example illustrates the cultural differences between U.S. and UK consumers. 15. It was not until the introduction of the Chevrolet Nova in Mexico that marketers realized “no va” in Spanish means “won’t go.” This linguistic error demonstrates how Chevrolet overlooked cultural differences in its product introduction. 16. Understanding culture alone will not lead a marketer to success; understanding subculture is just as essential. 17. Any non-homogeneous society will have numerous subcultures with identical modes of behavior. 18. Subcultures are groups within a larger culture that have their own distinct modes of behavior. 19. America’s population is becoming more homogeneous as ethnic and racial minority groups blend in through assimilation into the culture. 20. The cultural differences among Hispanic Americans usually do not affect their preferences as consumers. 21. The three largest and fastest-growing U.S. ethnic subcultures are Hispanic Americans, African Americans and Asian Americans. 22. The Hispanic American population is not a single, homogeneous group, but instead a number of groups, each of which differs culturally from the others. Marketers are more concerned with the acculturation experience of a Hispanic American than 23. the country of national origin. 24. Highly acculturated Hispanic Americans are predominately born in the United States, and most speak English by the third generation. 25. The African American culture in the United States runs the gamut from new immigrants to multigenerational American families. However, this fact should be of little importance to a marketer targeting subcultures within the group. 26. Although they share a common heritage, the African American community should be regarded as different subcultures due to ranges in education, income, acculturation levels and demographics. 27. The Asian American subculture consists of more than two dozen ethnic groups, each of which brings its own language, religion and values to the marketplace. 28. Group membership influences an individual’s purchase decisions and behavior in both overt and subtle ways. 29. Status is the relative prominence of an individual who is not a member of a particular reference group. 30. Groups do not intentionally create formal roles, nor do they ever have expectations that roles and status will develop within their membership. 31. Individuals who aspire to become members of a certain group will often follow that group’s norms before becoming a group member. 32. If a middle manager buys a SAAB automobile because several top executives in the firm own SAABs, this demonstrates the influence of membership groups. 33. The buying behavior of an individual in a group is not only affected by the norms of the group, but also by that individual’s role and status within the group. 34. Chris decides to proceed with a majority decision, even though the decision goes against his beliefs. Chris is exhibiting the Asch phenomenon. 35. A reference group’s influence on a purchasing decision of a member is often greater when the product is more conspicuous and not commonly owned. 36. Groups whose value structures and standards influence a person’s behavior are known as reference groups. 37. While cultural and family influences significantly affect consumer behavior, the influence of reference groups on consumer behavior tends to be minimal, especially for children. 38. Social class is determined by a multitude of factors including wealth, IQ and social connections. 39. Social class has rankings determined by income, occupation, education, family background and location of residence. 40. In determining class ranking, income is the most important variable. 41. Marketers find various methods like providing exclusive, unique or prestigious products to attract and impress the upper classes. 42. Opinion leaders are the first consumers to try products and then share their experience by word of mouth. 43. Opinion leaders rise to prominence because of their interest and expertise in certain products. 44. Opinion leaders gather their information only from magazines and newspapers, and then pass the information directly to the public through word of mouth. 45. The Internet and other media advertising have made family influences insignificant as a variable in determining purchasing behavior. 46. A life insurance salesperson is selling a policy to a husband and wife, and directs his conversation both the husband and the wife. We can assume the salesperson perceives this to be a syncratic purchasing decision. 47. Marketers are finding new product opportunities with two-income families demanding goods and services that fill the need for convenience, health, safety and time constraints. 48. Familiarity with technology and individualism are two important characteristics of the teen group. 49. Motives are external states that direct a person toward the goal of satisfying a need. 50. Consumers are often motivated to purchase a product in the hopes of filling a need. 51. A need is an imbalance between the consumer’s actual and desired states. 52. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, some people fixate on a need and never move beyond it. 53. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs begins with self-actualization needs at the lowest level, and progresses to physiological needs at the highest. 54. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the desire to feel accomplishment, achievement and respect is a social need. 55. Later research has shown that, depending on the personal value system of an individual, he/she might skip the esteem level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and move directly toward self-actualization. 56. Perception is the meaning a person attributes to incoming stimuli gathered through the senses of hearing, taste, smell, touch and sight. 57. A person’s perception of a product results solely from its physical characteristics such as size, color, shape and weight. 58. When creating an advertisement, marketers use color instead of contrast to break through the perceptual screens of consumers. 59. Blogs, social networking sites and electronic bulletin boards are effective ways for a marketer to infiltrate the perceptual screens of consumers. 60. Closure refers to a person’s tendency to be influenced by messages that close the gap between a product’s real and perceived advantages. 61. Marketers are challenged to create better packaging, dynamic advertising and eye-catching promotional materials in order to maintain the perceptual screens of loyal consumers. 62. Advertising that utilizes closure has a good chance of catching the attention of consumers as they try to complete the advertising message with a limited amount of stimuli. 63. Consumers with strong loyalties to certain products are more difficult to reach with competitive advertising. 64. Brand loyalty is valued by marketers as it not only keeps consumer purchasing the product, it also acts as a buffer against competitive messages getting to the consumer. 65. Subliminal advertising has proven to be a very successful way to induce the purchasing behavior desired by the marketer. 66. Marketers realize that attitudes are highly erratic and cannot be used to determine the purchasing behaviors of consumers. 67. Of all the variables that marketers study, attitudes are the most important because they change frequently and can be easily influenced in favor of buying a particular product. 68. The three components of an attitude are behavioral, affective and cognitive. 69. Jacqueline plans to purchase a 40-inch flat-screen television. After reading Consumer Reports, comparing technologies and prices on the Internet, and talking with friends and family who have made a similar purchase, Jacqueline makes her selection. The attitude component most apparent in this situation is cognitive behavior. 70. Ashok avoids buying certain products because of an unsatisfactory past experience with the manufacturer. Ashok is exhibiting the behavioral component of attitude. 71. Marketing success depends on a positive attitude, defined by a stable and balanced relationship between the behavioral, affective and cognitive components. 72. The decision on which retail store to shop is more often influenced by advertising and coupons than a consumer’s previous history with the store. 73. Shaquille purchases a refrigerator for his newly remodeled kitchen. His positive attitude about the product is a balance in the relationship between the behavioral, cognitive and affective components of his buying decision. 74. Over the past decade, the market for fresh spinach has increased dramatically. However, an outbreak of E. coli bacteria from certain spinach fields reduced spinach sales and changed consumer attitude about the product during that time. The attitude component most likely affected by this event was the behavioral. 75. Marketers have two ways of convincing consumers to adopt favorable attitudes toward their products: attempting to change the attitudes of consumers, or changing the product to appeal 76. to existing attitudes. 76. Marketers are more concerned with the current status of consumer decisions than they are with the process of how these decisions change over time. 77. A restaurant that places signs along the interstate to advertise its location knows the signs will act as cues, and hunger will be the drive that will create the desired response of the consumer stopping at the restaurant. 78. A money-back guarantee is a form of purchasing reinforcement. At specific mileage intervals, Honda sends certificates to owners of their automobiles offering 79. discounts on repair services through the dealerships. Each repair visit is overseen by a trained service representative, and completed repairs are followed up to ensure customer satisfaction. The attention given by the dealership is called shaping – creating the desire for the customer to return to their service department whenever a repair is needed. 80. Successful shaping leads to strong brand loyalty. 81. People tend to buy products they believe will bring them closer to their looking-glass self images. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Using the broad application of the word “product,” a television set is a(n): 2. A product is: 3. Which of the following comes closest to providing a pure good? 4. Which of the following companies is a pure service firm? 5. All of the following industries belong to the service sector except: 6. Distinguishing services from goods, all of the following statements are correct except: 7. Motel 6 and the Ritz-Carlton both provide sleeping accommodations, but their respective guests have considerably different expectations of service. This is because:

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