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NR 503 Final Exam Study Info updated July 2020

NR 503 Final Exam Study Info updated July 2020 Chamberlain College of Nursing Additional Study Notes for Final: NR 503 • Be sure to review the terminology and concepts of the first four weeks: these concepts help to inform and support the last four weeks of the course. • All information listed on this review doc can be found in the course text, Gordis. Definitions of study designs: Chapter 10: Differentiate between the case-control and cohort studies. Ask yourself, which is used when, and why. Case-Control: • Examine the possible relationship of an exposure to a certain disease • Identify group of individuals with the disease (cases) • For comparison, gather a group of people without that disease (controls) • Determine what proportion of the cases were exposed and were not • Also determine what proportion of the controls were exposed and not • Text: Thus, in a case-control study, if there is an association of an exposure with a disease, the prevalence of history of exposure should be higher in persons who have the disease (cases) than in those who do not have the disease (controls). • Ask yourself: Why is this important to the NP in primary care? How does this inform a provider’s decision-making? Cohort Studies: Chapter 13: Comparing Cohort and Case-Control Studies: See Figure 13-1 and 13-2 (busy pictures but hang in there) Chapter 13 comparison of studies - important to review Matching: Chapter 10: Text: A major concern in conducting a case-control study is that cases and controls may differ in characteristics or exposures other than the one that has been targeted for study. Randomization: The point of randomization is to prevent any potential biases on the part of the investigators/researchers. Text: Thus, the use of randomization is crucial to protect the study from any biases that might be introduced consciously or subconsciously by the investigator into the assignment process. Bias: (selection bias) (source of cases) Issues related to generalizability; cases from a single source less than desirable than if from multiple sources with a varying pool of cases. Ask yourself, why? Causality:Table 14-3: Using the Evidence in Developing Recommendations Cross-Sectional Study: Both exposure and disease outcome are determined simultaneously for each subject. Testing a person for the relationship between the exposure (or existence of disease) with evidence of the disease. See figure 10-13 and example of serum cholesterol and ECG. Incidence Density Sampling: Text: An important consideration in case-control studies is whether to include incident cases of a disease (newly diagnosed cases) or prevalent cases of the disease (people who may have had the disease for some time). Hypothesis: Confirm or refute based upon study; statement of proposed relationship Bradford-Hill Criterion: Epidemiologist, statistician, developed the guidelines for evaluating whether an observed association is casual. • Temporal relationship • Strength of the association • Dose-response relationship • Replication of the findings • Biological plausibility • Consideration of alternate explanations • Cessation of exposure • Consistency with other knowledge • Specificity of the association

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