Sophia - Human Biology - Unit 4 Milestone 4
In which of the following does the blood clot appropriately to prevent major blood loss?
What is the role of the aorta in the systemic circuit?
•	 It supplies deoxygenated blood to various body tissues.
•	 It supplies oxygenated blood to various body tissues.
•	 It collects oxygenated blood supplies from the lungs.
•	 It collects deoxygenated blood supplies from the lungs.
Heart and Blood Flow
Which antibody that inhibits pathogens from binding to the body's cells is found in endocrine gland secretions, such as tears and saliva?
What might a person with chronically low blood pressure be diagnosed with?
What kind of immunity involves white blood cells that have receptors for specific pathogens that changes over time and produces memory cells?
Which type of white blood cell attacks other unhealthy cells?
White Blood Cells
What are the antibodies found in blood type B?
•	 Neither anti-A nor anti-B
•	 Anti-A and Anti-B
If a transplanted organ's MHC cells don't match those of the recipient, what will happen?
•	 The organ will change its MHC cells so as to be recognized by the recipient's immune system.
•	 The recipient's body will block off the new organ and it won't function normally.
•	 The recipient's immune system will change the MHC markers on the organ so that it won't be identified as an intruder.
•	 The recipient's immune system will identify the transplanted organ as an intruder and attack it.
Organ Transplant and Immunotherapy
Which of the following statements about vaccines is true?
•	 A vaccine prompts the body's T-cells to produce antibodies against the virus.
•	 Vaccines are non-specific, meaning they protect against a variety of viruses or illnesses.
•	 Booster shots are a type of secondary vaccine that allow for longer lasting protection against a particular virus.
•	 Vaccines are used against viruses, bacteria and fungal infections.
What muscular tubes, not supported by cartilage, help regulate airflow into and out of the lungs?
Lower Respiratory Tract
Which part of the upper respiratory system is commonly known as the throat?
Upper Respiratory Tract
Which molecule helps maintain the pressure gradient of oxygen?
•	 Respiratory membrane
Respiration and the Respiratory Cycle
Which node does a pacemaker assist?
•	 The SA node
•	 It acts against both nodes
•	 Both the SA and AV nodes
•	 The AV node
Cardiac Cycle and Cardiac Conduction System
Which accurately represents bloodflow through the cardiovascular system?
•	 Heart → Arteries or Veins → Capillaries → Arterioles or Venules → Heart
•	 Heart → Arterioles or Venules → Capillaries → Arteries or Veins → Heart
•	 Heart → Veins → Venules → Capillaries → Arterioles → Arteries → Heart
•	 Heart → Arteries → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Heart
This diagram shows the lymphatic system of a human.
Which of these is true for the part labeled X?
•	 It is a filtration site for lymph.
•	 It is a production site for antibodies.
•	 It is a maturation site for T lymphocytes.
•	 It is a secretion site for lymph.
Which cells are triggered by our immune system to destroy certain types of cancer cells?
•	 Spleen cells
•	 Plasma cells
•	 Natural killer cells
•	 Myeloma cells
Cancer and Homeostasis
__________ T cells and __________T cells are two types of effector T cells.
•	 Antibody; cytotoxic
•	 Memory; NK
•	 NK; helper
•	 Cytotoxic; helper
Select the immune defense that is specific to adaptive immunity.
Which of the following is an autoimmune disorder?
•	 Anaphylactic shock
Immune System Disorders and HIV/AIDS
Which component of blood plays a role in the immune system?
•	 Red blood cells
•	 White blood cells