Sophia - Environmental Science - Unit 2 Challenge 2
1 — Ecology
Identify emergent properties at different levels of the organism organization.
Which of the following is an emergent property at the ecosystem level of organization?
•	a.) The relative abundance of species
•	b.) The differences between organisms within a species
•	c.) The types of ecosystems
•	d.) The interactions between communities
2 — Population Ecology: Exponential vs. Logistic Growth Models
Differentiate between exponential and logistic population growth models.
Which of the following characteristics is representative of the exponential population growth model?
•	a.) This growth model notes the population size that an ecosystem can sustainably support.
•	b.) This growth model produces an S-shaped line.
•	c.) This growth model takes into account limited resources.
•	d.) This growth model may not always be realistic.
3 — Population Ecology: Carrying Capacity
Determine the carrying capacity of a species from a given graph.
On the graph shown here, the carrying capacity for black bears is less than ___________.
The first time the black bear population reached carrying capacity was in the year __________.
•	a.) 20; 1990
•	b.) 5; 1995
•	c.) 10; 1985
•	d.) 15; 2000
4 — Community Ecology: Species Interactions
Identify the types of species interactions.
Which of the following is an example of predation?
•	a.) Two species of barnacles vie for living space on a rocky shore.
•	b.) Algae lives on a crab’s back and its color camouflages the crab.
•	c.) The bat-eared fox develops extra teeth and oversized ears.
•	d.) Hyenas chase and kill a small gazelle.
5 — Community Ecology: Ecological Succession
Differentiate between primary and secondary succession.
Which of the following characteristics is associated with secondary succession?
•	a.) New saplings of lodgepole pine begin to grow on land scarred by a recent fire.
•	b.) Moss quickly establishes itself on land recently exposed by glacial retreat.
•	c.) Algae and fungus start to grow on bare rock.
•	d.) Foliage begins to grow on new land created by cooled lava.
6 — Native and Non-Native Species: Characteristics
Determine the characteristics of native, non-native, and invasive species.
Which of the following examples corresponds with native species?
•	a.) Asian carp were brought to the U.S. to eat excess algae from ponds but found their way into rivers; the fish eat plankton, the diet of many smaller fish, and can grow to be 100 pounds.
•	b.) Originally from Japan, Kudzu was introduced to the U.S. as a fast-growing vine to curb soil erosion; it has spread across the South and covers about 150,000 acres each year.
•	c.) Many birds in New Zealand evolved to have very small or completely useless wings; they had no need to fly because there were no mammals to prey on them.
•	d.) Chickens were domesticated in Southeast Asia around 5,400 BC; they were first brought to the Americas around 3,300 years ago.
7 — Native and Non-Native Species: Impacts of Invasive Species
Identify the impacts of invasive species.
An invasive species can ___________.
•	a.) threaten or endanger native species
•	b.) boost ecosystem health and productivity
•	c.) increase agriculture health and botanical gardens
•	d.) have many natural predators, competitors, parasites or diseases
8 — Ecosystems Ecology
Recognize an organism as either a producer, consumer, or decomposer.
Which of the following organisms is a producer?
•	a.) An earthworm
•	b.) A willow tree
•	c.) A jackrabbit
•	d.) A leopard seal
9 — Food Chains and Food Webs: Energy
Determine how energy is passed from one level to the next in a trophic pyramid.
In an energy pyramid, which way does energy transfer?
•	a.) Energy transfers from top to bottom and increases at each level.
•	b.) Energy transfers from bottom to top and increases at each level.
•	c.) Energy transfers from bottom to top and decreases at each level.
•	d.) Energy transfers from top to bottom and decreases at each level.
10 — Food Chains and Food Webs: Order
Identify the correct food chain order.
Beginning at the first trophic level, which of the following answer choices shows the correct food chain order?
•	a.) Maple leaf, Cricket, Lizard, Fox, Fungi
•	b.) Fox, Cricket, Maple leaf, Lizard, Fungi
•	c.) Fungi, Fox, Lizard, Cricket, Maple Leaf
•	d.) Cricket, Lizard, Fox, Fungi, Maple Leaf