NURSING NR 324 Chapter 47;: Nursing Management: Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease. Q&A - €12,00   In winkelwagen

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NURSING NR 324 Chapter 47;: Nursing Management: Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease. Q&A

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. After the insertion of an arteriovenous graft (AVG) in the right forearm, a 54-year-old patient complains of pain and coldness of the right fingers. Which action should the nurse take? a. Teach the patient about normal AVG function. b. Remind the patient to take a daily low-dose aspirin tablet. c. Report the patient’s symptoms to the health care provider. d. Elevate the patient’s arm on pillows to above the heart level. ANS: C The patient’s complaints suggest the development of distal ischemia (steal syndrome) and may require revision of the AVG. Elevation of the arm above the heart will further decrease perfusion. Pain and coolness are not normal after AVG insertion. Aspirin therapy is not used to maintain grafts. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1120 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 2. When a patient with acute kidney injury (AKI) has an arterial blood pH of 7.30, the nurse will expect an assessment finding of a. persistent skin tenting b. rapid, deep respirations. c. bounding peripheral pulses. d. hot, flushed face and neck. ANS: B Patients with metabolic acidosis caused by AKI may have Kussmaul respirations as the lungs try to regulate carbon dioxide. Bounding pulses and vasodilation are not associated with metabolic acidosis. Because the patient is likely to have fluid retention, poor skin turgor would not be a finding in AKI. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1104 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 3. The nurse is planning care for a patient with severe heart failure who has developed elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. The primary collaborative treatment goal in the plan will be a. augmenting fluid volume. b. maintaining cardiac output. c. diluting nephrotoxic substances. d. preventing systemic hypertension. ANS: B The primary goal of treatment for acute kidney injury (AKI) is to eliminate the cause and provide supportive care while the kidneys recover. Because this patient’s heart failure is causing AKI, the care will be directed toward treatment of the heart failure. For renal failure caused by hypertension, hypovolemia, or nephrotoxins, the other responses would be correct. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1102 | 1105 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 4. A patient who has acute glomerulonephritis is hospitalized with hyperkalemia. Which information will the nurse monitor to evaluate the effectiveness of the prescribed calcium gluconate IV? a. Urine volume b. Calcium level c. Cardiac rhythm d. Neurologic status ANS: C The calcium gluconate helps prevent dysrhythmias that might be caused by the hyperkalemia. The nurse will monitor the other data as well, but these will not be helpful in determining the effectiveness of the calcium gluconate. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1105 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 5. A 48-year-old patient with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) is scheduled for an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Which order for the patient will the nurse question? a. NPO for 6 hours before procedure b. Ibuprofen (Advil) 400 mg PO PRN for pain c. Dulcolax suppository 4 hours before procedure d. Normal saline 500 mL IV infused before procedure ANS: B The contrast dye used in IVPs is potentially nephrotoxic, and concurrent use of other nephrotoxic medications such as the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided. The suppository and NPO status are necessary to ensure adequate visualization during the IVP. IV fluids are used to ensure adequate hydration, which helps reduce the risk for contrast-induced renal failure. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1115 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 6. Which statement by a 62-year-old patient with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) indicates that the nurse’s teaching about management of CKD has been effective? a. “I need to get most of my protein from low-fat dairy products.” b. “I will increase my intake of fruits and vegetables to 5 per day.” c. “I will measure my urinary output each day to help calculate the amount I can drink.” d. “I need to take erythropoietin to boost my immune system and help prevent infection.” ANS: C The patient with end-stage kidney disease is taught to measure urine output as a means of determining an appropriate oral fluid intake. Erythropoietin is given to increase the red blood cell count and will not offer any benefit for immune function. Dairy products are restricted because of the high phosphate level. Many fruits and vegetables are high in potassium and should be restricted in the patient with CKD. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1115 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 7. Which information will the nurse monitor in order to determine the effectiveness of prescribed calcium carbonate (Caltrate) for a patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD)? a. Blood pressure b. Phosphate level c. Neurologic status d. Creatinine clearance ANS: B Calcium carbonate is prescribed to bind phosphorus and prevent mineral and bone disease in patients with CKD. The other data will not be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of calcium carbonate. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1113 TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 8. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) is ordered for a patient with hyperkalemia. Before administering the medication, the nurse should assess the a. bowel sounds. b. blood glucose. c. blood urea nitrogen (BUN). d. level of consciousness (LOC). ANS: A Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) should not be given to a patient with a paralytic ileus (as indicated by absent bowel sounds) because bowel necrosis can occur. The BUN and creatinine, blood glucose, and LOC would not affect the nurse’s decision to give the medication. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1112 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 9. Which menu choice by the patient who is receiving hemodialysis indicates that the nurse’s teaching has been successful? a. Split-pea soup, English muffin, and nonfat milk b. Oatmeal with cream, half a banana, and herbal tea c. Poached eggs, whole-wheat toast, and apple juice d. Cheese sandwich, tomato soup, and cranberry juice ANS: C Poached eggs would provide high-quality protein, and apple juice is low in potassium. Cheese is high in salt and phosphate, and tomato soup would be high in potassium. Split-pea soup is high in potassium, and dairy products are high in phosphate. Bananas are high in potassium, and the cream would be high in phosphate. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 1114-1115 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity 10. Before administration of calcium carbonate (Caltrate) to a patient with chronic kidney dise

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