CHAPTER 12THE NORTH AND WEST: Spotlight ...
CHAPTER 12THE NORTH AND WEST:
1. How did American transportation change between the presidencies of Thomas Jefferson (which began in 1801) and Abraham Lincoln (1861)?
Americans transitioned from primarily water-based travel to land-based travel.
The majority of new roadways were built on a north–south orientation by the 1860s instead of an east–west orientation.
U.S. roadways were comprised of bumpy dirt roads in the early 1800s and they were later built into smooth, paved roads by the 1860s.
American travelers relied less on traveling by horse and more on traveling via a network of railroads by the 1860s.
2. The reason that Great Britain, the United States, France, and Germany were far more prosperous than most of the rest of the world in the 1850s was because all four countries
were in the Northern Hemisphere.
had primarily urban populations.
controlled immense coal resources.
3. How did Great Britain's high wages make its industries more efficient, therefore helping to make Great Britain the world's most prosperous nation in the 1850s?
High wages were used as an incentive to workers, who only received raises if they met their efficiency quotas.
Highly paid British workers tended to work more efficiently than less-well-paid laborers in other countries.
High wages incentivized companies to replace human workers with machines, which were more efficient.
British workers used their high wages to purchase many goods and services, which spurred production.
4. Although Britain and the United States had very similar sized populations in the 1850s, in what way were the demographics of the two countries significantly different?
The number of workers in the service industry
The number of people who owned their own home
The percentage of impoverished people in the general population
The percentage of the population that lived in towns and cities
5. Although the United States had the second highest per capita production of goods and services in the 1850s, which of the following groups likely did not experience the benefits of that prosperity?
Southern slave owners
Gold miners in California
Merchants in New York City
Poor farm families
1. Those who sought to settle in California would have first reached
Salt Lake City.
2. Settlers who were escaping religious persecution during the mid-1800s would have traveled along which trail?
The Oregon Trail
The Santa Fe Trail
The Mormon Trail
The California Trail
3. Which factors likely made the Oregon Trail a long, difficult, and sometimes deadly trek for Americans?
Threats from Spanish warriors and passing through the Rocky Mountains
Crossing the Mississippi River and the hot, dry climate
Threats from Native Americans in the Republic of Texas territory and crossing the Colorado River
Passing through the Rocky Mountains and the harsh, cold winters
1. How did Americans living on the East Coast get to California during the Gold Rush if they did not want to, or could not afford to, travel by boat?
On foot or in a covered wagon across the continent
On a train from Chicago to San Francisco
Through Canada, riding on horseback
Through Oklahoma, led by a Native American guide
2. According to James Marshall's account of finding gold in 1848, which of the following is probably the reason Marshall urged his men to stay quiet about his discovery?
Marshall worried that the two pieces of gold he found in the river were not actually gold but iron pyrite, and wanted to have the gold certified first.
Since Marshall was a very private and withdrawn man, he worried that news of a gold discovery would bring thousands of unwelcome people to the area.
Marshall was prejudiced against the Mormon faith, and he wanted to keep the gold a secret from the Mormon soldiers nearby so they would not become rich.
The men needed to finish their job (building the sawmill) before they could go look for gold, and Marshall worried others would get to it first if word got out.
3. What does Sarah Royce's story suggest about the potential difficulties of traveling to California by covered wagon during the Gold Rush?
Travelers might become the victims of theft if they encountered a group of desperate migrants who had run out of supplies.
A wagon party could encounter chaotic and unruly Army troops along the way, and might be harassed by the soldiers.
The cattle that pulled the wagons could die unexpectedly, forcing a family to abandon many of its supplies.
The dead bodies of cattle might attract aggressive condors or vultures, which might try to attack living cattle, too.
4. Daniel B. Woods argued that gold mining in the California Gold Rush was uniquely frustrating because, compared to other kinds of work, gold mining was extremely
5. These documents support which of the following historical arguments?
The poor diets of aspiring Gold Rush miners, both during their journey and in the gold fields, led to increased mortality rates in the United States in the 1850s.
American women found the journey west for the Gold Rush especially difficult because they were expected to care for their families while also searching for gold.
The wealth the Gold Rush offered to Americans was particularly attractive because John Marshall's discovery occurred during the recession of 1847–1848.
Both the journey to the Gold Rush in California and the work to find the gold were extremely difficult.