LAS MAS MUS 337 SUM19 101: Quiz 4; Scored 100%
Question 1 (3 points)
Match the composer to the composition.
Question 1 options:
Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla
1. \"A la xácara xacarilla\"
2. \"Villancico a 6 al príncipe de la iglesia, el señor San Pedro\"
3. \"A negrito de Cucurumbé\"
Question 2 (4 points)
Match the perfomer(s) to the song.
Question 2 options:
Crescencio M. García
Capilla Virreinal de la Nueva España
Schola Cantorum Mexico
2. Kyrie from Missa Ego Flos Campi
3. \"Xicochi, xicochi conetzintle\"
4. \"Son de la Danza de los Mixes\"
Question 3 (8 points)
Match the musical genre with its description.
Question 3 options:
1. A ballad song and precursor to the corrido that speaks on the subjects of love, power, and intrigue
2. Music written for the Catholic church service according to particular \"ordinary\" and \"proper\" sections
3. A song and dance form not intended for church used to highlight festivities and celebrations
4. Music created with popular melodies and dance rhythms used in religious services in an effort to include more people
5. Villancico with African influences, such as in language, rhythms, and instrumentation
6. A wind band musical form used for sacred purposes, translating to \"hymn\" or \"anthem,\" which praises God in a religious context, although is also used for nationalistic purposes in other contexts
7. A wind band musical form translated as \"sacred dance songs\" used for spiritual devotion and demonstrating indigenous musical elements with those of Europe
8. Ritual dance-drama accompanying many festivals that demonstrates indigenous spiritual practices with adopted Christian beliefs
Question 4 (3 points)
Match the characteristic of the Danzas de Conquista with its probable source.
Question 4 options:
Use of wind and percussion instruments only
Using musical notation
Using dance steps in the form of a cross or the cardinal directions
2. Spanish Influence
3. Mestizaje (or Mixed Elements)
Question 5 (1 point)
What genre mixes Spanish and other native languages for secular and sacred celebrations?
Question 5 options:
Question 6 (1 point)
What term is used to identify native-born descendants of Spaniards?
Question 6 options:
Question 7 (1 point)
A primary difference between the Danza de los Concheros and the Danza Azteca (or Danza Mexica) is the use of the concha, a stringed instrument of obvious Spanish influence.
Question 7 options:
Question 8 (1 point)
The Mixes are an indigenous language group with a presence in the highlands of the state of Jalisco.
Question 8 options:
Question 9 (1 point)
Moros y Cristianos is a type of religious dance-drama originally used by the Spaniards to convert native Mexicans to Christianity.
Question 9 options:
Philosophy 242 Notes
A comprehensive summary of all work covered in the module of Philosophy 242: The Philosophy of Religion, including that covered in lectures, personal notes, readings and the module booklet. This summary looks at what the concept “religion” means, main arguments for the existence of God (The Cosmological Proof and the Ontological Proof), the problem of evil (including the Augustine Theodicy and the Iranean Theodicy), the meaning of Religious Language (particularly as looked at by Tillich and Braithwaite), the verifiability of Religious Belief and the knowledge question in science and faith. It provides everything you need to obtain extensive knowledge into the topic and do well in the exam.
LAS MAS MUS 337 SUM19 101: Final. 100% grade.
Tone or aural color
Volume and articulation of sounds
Frequency of the tone
Phonic structure or relationships between the sounds
Duration of sounds and silences and organization of such
Underlying organizational structure of the sounds
Flutes, reeds, & trumpets
Lutes, zithers, lyres, & harps
Non-drum percussion instruments
Electrically driven and amplified instruments
U se of wind and percussion instruments only
Using musical notation
Using dance steps in the form of a cross or cardinal directions
Sea shell horn
Song in Nahuatl
Nahua professional musicians
Membranophone made of carved wooden tree trunk with animal skin drum head
A ballad song and precursor to the corrido that speaks on subjects of love, power, and intrigue
A song and dance form not intended for church used to highlight festivities and celebrations
Music written for the Catholic church service according to particular "ordinary" and "proper" sections
Villancicos with African influences, such as in language, rhythms, and instrumentation
Music created with popular melodies and dance rhythms used in religious services in an effort to include more people
A wind band musical form used for sacred purposes, translating to "hymn" or "anthem," which praises God in a religious context, although is also used for nationalistic purposes in other contexts
Ritual dance dramas accompanying many festivals that demonstrate indigenous spiritual practices with adopted Christian beliefs
A wind band musical form translated as "sacred dance songs" used for spiritual devotion and demonstrating indigenous musical elements with those of Europe
Oaxaca and Chiapas
drum with head
deer bone rasp
Yaqui Deer Dance
son calenteno/arpa grande
banda de viento waltz
1. Â Â Contemporary norteÃ±o -style version of Revolutionary corrido
1. Â Â Contemporary version of soldadera Revolutionary corrido
Bi- National pop/rock
1. Â Â Early northern conjunto
1. Â Â Nationalistic orchestral composition
Post-national aleotoric composition
Contemporary song cycle
rub between 2 and 3 duple and triple playing together
passed down through generation, has history to it
everyday listening type of music, combination between both, but no historical roots
formal frame work notation system, training
oaxaca, mexico and general
Where did the banda de viento developed
what is the 19th century cuban dance that was integrated into the repertoire of mexico music
what is the spanish term of mixture used in reference to racial blending
folk music is understood as music that only circulates through notation
sandunga was performed by
the four elements of dance as outlined by Rudolf van laban are: body time and movement
music can exist free from social influence and context
"A primary difference between the Danza de los Concheros and the Danza Azteca (or Danza Mexica) is the use of the
___ ___, a stringed instrument of obvious Spanish influence."
Fernando, the mariachi player in the Taylor & Hickey (1997) article, devoted his life to the preservation of cultural practices for a place in which he took great pride, visited frequently, and supported politically and economically.
The Taylor & Hickey (1997) article was thought-provoking in its various descriptions of people who held stereotyped views of Mexico.
The term, mestizaje, refers to the native-born descendants of Spaniards
One obvious change in mariachi groups when they moved from rural to urban areas was the adoption of the charro attire.
Harvest chant performed by shaman with mitote for harvest ceremonies and feast day
"Wiricuta," a fiddle song from the Peyote Cycle regarding the use of the peyote cactus and naming the holy site of San Luis Potosi
Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala," a Danza del Venado (Deer Dance) from the Pascola Ceremony, which describes events in the Seyewailo (Flower World)
Another term for "traditional" music is "folk" music.
With a total population exceeding 120 million, Mexico has a significant portion of its population identified as indigenous at Â million.
Culture can be defined as all the things people use and create in daily life, such as musical instruments, kitchen utensils, clothing, and written documents
The Mixes are an indigenous language group with a presence in the highlands of the state of
Moros y Â Â Â is a genre of religious dance dramas used by Spaniards to convert native Mexicans to Christianity.
Native-born descendants of Spaniards
The event being documented in the mariachi film, "Sing and Don't Cry," was Guadalajara's International Mariachi Band Competition and was significant in that it brought mariachis from many places, not just Mexico, together to perform, share, and appreciate the many facets and flavors of mariachi, as well as the commonalties fundamental to the musical practice.
The mariachi band from Tucson, Arizona, highlighted in the film was important in that it showed the strength young people have despite being forced to emigrate from their homes in Mexico
What is the origin of the charro mariachi costume?
How do the original mariachi groups of the countryside compare with the modern mariachi groups of the city?
Genre of Mexican folk music distinguished by its strophic form and lively choreography. Its first documented use surfaces in Veracruz in the eighteenth century
The mega-genre of Mexican dance song, called son , is defined by three dimensions:
A six-beat pattern with varying accentuation sometimes felt in two, sometimes in three.
In order to play mariachi al talÃ³n , a musician would need to:
Plantas are a type of chamba :
Mariachi musicians who play al talÃ³n are usually paid by the hour
Chambas refer to gigs played by a mariachi ensemble who typically works together.
In the 1940s, a significant change occured in son jarocho music--ensembles playing in this style began to include the accordion.
The singing style found in son jarocho , called progenero and coro, is likely derived from the prevalent African style of call-and-response.
Jalisco was the exclusive birthplace of mariachi.
Urbanization following the Mexican Revolution led to the integration of regional sones into the modern mariachi repertoire and musical practices.
Several distinct "flavors"-- alteÃ±os , abajeÃ±os , costeÃ±os , and planecos --appeared in the son jalisciense repertoire.
Mariachi groups established outside Mexico, such as Nati Cano's Mariachi Los Camperos in Los Angeles, have had the following impact(s) on the mariachi tradition
Mariachi groups established in U.S. schools, such as Belle and Juan Ortiz's program in the San Antonio Independent School District, have had the following impact(s) on the mariachi tradition:
Mariachi festivals, such as the Tucson International Mariachi Festival, have had the following impact(s) on the mariachi tradition:
Social movements in the U.S., such as Chicano Movimiento and Women's Liberation, have had the following impact(s) on the mariachi tradition:
Modern technology, such as YouTube and Facebook, have had the following impact(s) on the mariachi tradition
The women in CompaÃ±eras faced many obstacles not typically faced by men in mariachi, such as
Female mariachi musicians from the film discussed what seemed to be "unacceptable" instruments to play by those around them due to their perception of being masculine.Â Those instruments were the:
While the young, female mariachis from Mariachi Reyna de Los Angeles were passionate, goal-oriented, and committed to mariachi music, they became less committed and goal-oriented as time went on due to a lack of ability to earn a living wage playing mariachi, need to take care of their children, and focus on school and development of alternative careers.
Adaptation of European violin and dance music, that helped rally Mayas to rebellion
"Ãšltimas Variaciones para Piano" represents Mexico's
The Cruzoobs utlized idigenous Mayan rituals and music in their fight against the Yucatecos because:
In Mulholland's article, " Mariachi , Myths, and Mestizaje " (2007), she asserts that mariachi represents an "imagined" nation of Mexico through the symbolism of the macho mestizo male and its telling of national history and origins.
In Mulholland's (2013) article, "A Beautiful Thing," she argues that mariacheras have been successful at making their mark in the mariachi world by imitating their male counterparts' mannerisms, such as bravado, bawdiness, and imbibing in alcohol with patrons.
The presidency of Porfirio DÃaz is also known as the ___
Spanish genre of musical theatre characterized by a mixture of sung and spoken dialogue.
The themes embodied by Chin Chun Chan characterize this period of the Mexican Republic
Spanish Dance of Cuban origin distinguished by its two against three rhythmic pattern
The development of modern cosmopolitan cities was an important goal of the reform policies of President Porfirio DÃaz.
Chin Chun Chan characterizes the _______ people, who immigrated in large numbers to Mexico at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries until labor and exclusion laws were passed.
The development of modern cosmopolitan cities was an important goal of the reform policies of President Porfirio DÃaz.
"Sobre las olas" is a famous zarzuela composed by
The Conservatorio de la MÃºsica and Orquesta TÃpica de la Ciudad de la MÃ©xico was important d uring the reign of President DÃaz in representing a modern national identity for Mexico and demonstrating its cosmopolitanism as a nation.
The_____ is an artistic gathering for learned audiences, usually in public, where individual numbers from operas and light classical music might be performed.
"For signing a proclamation protesting injustices in the rule of Porfirio DÃaz, the peasant miner,
_______ , was executed and later immortalized in a corrido."
Corridistas also sang about the roles that women played in combat a______ during the revolution.
Ballads narrating stories that became popular during the Mexican Revolution
NorteÃ±o and _ ___ _ may be considered pillar styles in Mexican popular music
Modern popular styles built around the ______ dance rhythm, include quebradita and the techno genre known as tribal .
Identify the popular musical genre that is not identified with wedding celebrations in Mexico.
This musical movement took place in the 1970s and reflected the acceptance of the cumbia as the ultimate Latin dance rhythm .
The song "El triste," sung by JosÃ© JosÃ©, exemplifies the polished balada song style popular in the 1970s.
The likely local drug lord-saint described in the narcocorrido , "Jefe de Jefes," is
Elements of Dance
What is Ethnomusicology? What is fieldwork
HIEU201_Chapter1Quiz: Already Graded A
Paleolithic religious beliefs
a. centered around the idea that forces of nature had been created to serve human beings.
b. centered around the idea that human beings needed to appease the forces of nature.
c. made a clear distinction between nature and the supernatural.
d. did not include belief in life after death.
Which of the following is NOT a feature of the Neolithic Age?
a. Human beings domesticated animals.
b. Human beings started using iron tools.
c. Human beings established villages.
d. Human beings discovered farming.
The first civilizations
a. lacked organized governments.
b. abandoned the monumental architecture of prehistoric cultures.
c. did not yet possess specialization of labor.
d. developed systems for administration, cooperation, and record-keeping.
Sargon the Great
a. conquered territories, plundered their resources, and then left to find new opportunities for conquest.
b. was known for his policy of pursuing peace at any cost.
c. contributed to the spread of Sumerian culture beyond the boundaries of Mesopotamia.
d. was the leader of an important Sumerian city-state.
The Sumerians erected their religious temples atop huge multilevel mounds called
The kings in ancient Mesopotamia
a. were rulers thought to have been selected by the gods to represent them on earth.
b. were viewed as being above the law and absolute in their power.
c. were replaced by democracies governed by elders and assemblies of citizens.
d. were believed to be living gods.
The economy of Mesopotamian cities
a. was entirely self-sufficient.
b. was conducted by a state bureaucracy.
c. was largely unregulated.
d. depended heavily on foreign and domestic trade.
Which of the following describes the Egyptians\' relationship with their environment?
a. The challenges of nature were designed to punish human beings.
b. The unpredictability of the Nile made Egyptian life precarious.
c. Nature served as a source of security.
d. The lack of natural boundaries subjected Egyptians to constant invasion and change.
a. communicated the gods\' will to the Egyptian people.
b. had little impact on the lives of peasants and workers.
c. were elected by a noble class.
d. technically owned no earthly possessions.
a. achieved no substantial technological progression.
b. rejected all aspects of foreign culture.
c. were absorbed into Babylonian civilization.
d. ruled Asia Minor and northern Syria.
Which of the following is NOT true of the Persian empire?
a. It was ruled by a council thought to represent the people.
b. It allowed local elites a large measure of self-rule.
c. It was bound together by a uniform language, Aramaic.
d. It developed an effective administrative system of twenty provinces.
Compared to a rational or scientific view of the world, a mythopoeic view
a. sees the world of nature as an entity, like a machine, rather than a living being.
b. appeals primarily to the emotions rather than reason and tends to be more subjective than objective.
c. shows little imagination or emotion in interpreting nature.
d. is more logically consistent than the rational view developed by the Greeks.
The ________ Age is also known as the Old Stone Age.
Which of the following civilizations rose first?
The Epic of Gligamesh depicts the Mesopotamians\' mood of
a. optimism and hope.
b. stoicism and tranquility.
c. sensuality and emotionality.
d. pessimism and despair.
In Paleolithic societies, human beings
a. were unable to communicate with one another by language.
b. lived in large permanent settlements of several thousand people.
c. obtained the necessities of life by gathering food and hunting.
d. had not yet acquired the ability to make tools.
The central force in the first civilizations was
a. iron technology.
b. popularly-selected governance.
In Hammurabi\'s code of law
a. women enjoyed a legal status equal to that of men.
b. women and children had no legal protection.
c. crimes against nobles were punished more severely than crimes against commoners.
d. the king was not bound by the law, but might legally do whatever he wished to do.
The religious teachings of the prophet Zoroaster
a. represent the earliest known examples of monotheistic faith.
b. are a complex set of polytheistic beliefs based on magic and blood sacrifice.
c. reject the need for ethics in human life.
d. are dualistic, asserting the existence of both a good god and an evil god.
The Egyptian New Kingdom began with the war of liberation against the
Interculturele Aspecten samenvatting artikelen
Interculturele Aspecten samenvatting artikelen. Bevat de volgende artikelen:
- Developmental Flexibility in the Age of Globalization: Autonomy and Identity Development Among Immigrant Adolescents
- Identity Formation in Bicultural Youth: A Developmental Perspective
- Vedder, P. & Van Geel, M. (2017). Cultural identity development as a developmental resource. In N.J. Cabrera & B. Leyendecker (Eds), Handbook of positive development of minority children and youth (123-138). Amsterdam: Springer, Netherlands
- Pinquart, M. & Kauser, R. (2017) Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000149 (26)
- Ramírez-Esparza, N. & García-Sierra, A., & Kuhl, P. (2016). The impact of early social interactions on later language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants. Child Development. Advance online publication.
- Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Stevens, G. (2012). Multiple identities and religious transmission: a study among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim adolescents and their parents. Child Development, 83, 1577-1590.
- Spiegler, O., Güngör, D, & Leyendecker, B. (2016). Muslim immigrant parents’ social status moderates the link between religious parenting and children’s identification with the heritage and host culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47, 1159 – 1177
- Vedder, P., Wenink, E., & van Geel, M. (2017). Intergroup contact and prejudice between Dutch majority and Muslim minority youth in the Netherlands. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
- Vedder, O. & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2016). Children, families and schools. In: David Sam & John Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology, 2nd edition (pp 441-463).
- Vedder, P. (2008).Cultuur, acculturatie en afwijkende ontwikkeling. (19 p)
Perspectives on Mariachi & Mexico and an Introduction to MariachiAND 2: Mariachi Ensembles and Musical & Poetic Forms
Mariachi KWL Chart
Mariachi is a traditional Mexican music and a fundamental element of Mexican culture. Traditional mariachi groups, made up of two or more members, wear regional costumes adapted from the charro costume and interpret a broad repertoire of songs on stringed instruments. Ensembles playing ‘modern mariachi’ include trumpets, violins, the vihuela, and guitarrón (bass guitar), and may have four or more musicians. The wide repertoire includes songs from different regions, jarabes, minuets, polkas, valonas, schottisches, waltzes, and serenades, in addition to corridos (typical Mexican ballads narrating stories of battles, outstanding deeds and love affairs) and traditional songs depicting rural life. Modern mariachi music has adopted other genres such as ranchera songs, the bolero ranchero, and even the cumbia from Colombia. The lyrics of mariachi songs portray love of the earth, hometown, native land, religion, nature, fellow countrywomen, and the strength of the country. Learning by ear is the main means of transmission of traditional mariachi, and the skill is usually passed down from fathers to sons and through performance at festive, religious, and civil events. Mariachi music transmits values of respect for the natural heritage of the regions of Mexico and local history in the Spanish language and the different Indian languages of Western Mexico.”
Traditionally, typically all strings
Violin (melody): like European counterpart
Requinto guitar (melody/harmony): smaller, deeper body, higher-pitched, & 6 nylon strings (plucked)
Vihuela Mexicana (harmony/rhythm): derived from Spanish vihuela; guitar-like, but with vaulted back & 5 nylon strings; like small guitarrón
Guitarra de golpe (rhythm): slightly bigger than vihuela with 5 bronze strings
Guitarrón (bass): looks like a big vihuela with 6 nylon strings
Arpa (bass & melody): served purposes of violin and guitarrón originally; now not as common
Trumpet added in the 1940s
After the Mexican Revolution (ca. 1910-1920), there was a big migration from people from different regions to Mexico City.
Urban mariachi groups integrated regional sones. Jesus Járegui challenges the common claim that Jalisco was the single geographical birthplace of mariachi. (Sturman, p. 198)
Urbanization and exchange caused variations and changes to occur in melody, rhythm, lyrics, structure, and instrumentation of mariachi.
Essential genres in mariachi music Canción ranchera
SOCS185 Week 6 quiz 2018
(TCO 8) What term is used by sociologists to describe socially constructed categories based on biological traits a society defines as important?
(TCO 8) People define themselves—or others—as members of an ethnic category based on which three characteristics?
Food, music, and clothing
Language, music, and ancestry
Common country of origin, language, and religion
Athos, Porthos, and Aramis
Common ancestry, language, and religion
(TCO 6) In sociological terms, members of a minority are _____
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
are outnumbered by the dominant group
speak a different language than the dominant group
are members of a different religious group than the dominant group
vote less often than those in the majority group
(TCO 5) Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by
high levels of immigration
frustration among disadvantaged people
people with rigid personalities
somebody else, but not me
(TCO 8) Which is the term for the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male?
Primary sex characteristics
Secondary sex characteristics
(TCO 8) _____ refers to social organization in which males dominate females.
(TCO 8) According to intersection theory, _____ is a source of social disadvantage.
only the lonely
gender, race, and class
(TCO 8) Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of U.S. society, but seeks to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
(TCO 7) Comparing school performance, researchers have found that the most important cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is
differences in schools
differences in home environments
differences in personal ability
differences in personal health
differences in family composition
(TCO 3) A social-exchange analysis of family life is likely to consider
how families keep society as a whole operating
how families perpetuate social inequality
how individuals select partners who offer about as much as they do to the relationship
how families regulate sexual activity
the influence of partner swapping and open marriage
(TCO 3) What is the term for the study of the distribution of health and disease in a society’s population?
Sociology of medicine
Sociology of health
(TCO 7) The term empty nest refers to
families whose children have grown and left home
women who choose to remain single
women who marry, but choose to remain childless
egalitarian family structures
couples who are unable to have a child
(TCO 7) A religious organization that stands apart from the larger society is a _____, while a _____ is a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions.
(TCO 7) According to Max Weber’s analysis of Protestantism and the rise of capitalism, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Protestantism held back the development of capitalism for years
Protestantism, with its conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, fostered social unrest, and averted a socialist revolution
Protestantism even with its argument with the dominant Roman Catholic Church, still supported the economic status quo
Protestantism stressed duty and hard work, boosting economic production and fostering the rise of capitalism
Protestantism, with its conflict with the Roman Catholic Church, fostered social unrest, and a socialist revolution
(TCO 3) Magnet schools encourage
students to specialize in specific areas of study
school busing for cultural diversity.
students to take control of their own learning
parents and teachers to be polarized
students to complete their education in fewer years
(TCO 3) A symbolic-interaction approach to health and medicine emphasizes
the meanings people attach to health and illness
social inequality in terms of health
how societies must excuse ill people from most responsibilities
diet and exercise
the distribution of health care resources
(TCO 5) Capitalism is an economic system in which
there is private ownership of property
all property is communally owned, and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce
the means of production and distribution are collectively owned
there is a private/public partnership in the production of goods and services
the rich are exploited by the poor
(TCO 5) Concerning the issue of personal freedom, capitalist systems emphasize people’s _____, while socialist systems emphasize people’s _____
collective needs; personal needs
freedom from basic want; freedom to pursue their self-interest
freedom to pursue their self-interest; freedom from basic want
social needs; material needs
social needs; private needs
(TCO 5) The Marxist political-economy model suggests that
power is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few
an anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system
power is widely dispersed throughout society
many people do not vote because they are satisfied with the political system
that the only justice in the halls of justice is in the halls
(TCO 5) In Max Weber’s view, monarchy claims legitimacy based on
REL2300 Module 10 Quiz Latest 2018
Which one of the Gospels is not considered one of the synoptic Gospels?
Which group represents the \"Radical Reformation\" tradition and is named for its non-belief in infant baptism?
What caused the split between the western and eastern churches of Christendom?
The belief about babtism
The practice of mass
The belief about Mary as the mother of Jesus.
The claims of the papacy.
In sixteenth- and seventeenth century Europe and eighteenth-century North American, challenges to traditional theologies became known as
In the sixteenth century, many Christians broke away from the Roman Catholic church\'s authority and doctrine. This movement became known as
The Catholic Reformation
The Orthodox Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
The English Reformation
There are two main traditional branches of Christianity: Western Churches and and Eastern Churches.
Crucifixion in Roman times was the form of execution for criminals.
The story of Adam and Eve demonstrates that humanity needs a compassionate, loving God by illustrating that everyone is
inclined to sin.
made in God\'s image.
perfect and without sin.
made as servants to the Divine.
The Christian Trinity consists of God, the Heavenly Father; the Son of God - Jesus Christ; and the Holy Spirit - three persons bound together, but who are one God.
Who was the apostle credited with spreading Christ\'s message to the non-Jews and preaching that acceptance of Jesus was the way to a right relationship with God rather than the keeping of Jewish law?
After the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410 CE, the two halves of the Christian world grew apart, divided by
the bishops of Rome and Constantinople.
language, culture and religious differences.
religious differences and rulers.
conquest, military power, and foreign rule.
To Christians, Jesus\' life is seen as a legendary account of a Jewish teacher.
Liberation theology suggests \"commitment of solidarity with the poor, with those who suffer misery and injustice.\"
A distinctive feature of Orthodox Christianity is the veneration of