Samenvatting Bedrijfsethiek boek & papers
Samenvatting alle literatuur (boek en papers HC2&3) voor het vak Bedrijfsethiek: - Andrew Crane and Dirk Matten, Business Ethics, Oxford University Press, fourth edition, 2016. Chapters 1-2, 4-9, 11. - Consequentialism: Its Nature and Attractions, in: Russ Shafer-Landau: The Fundamentals of Ethics, pp. 117-124. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. - Right and Wrong, in: Nagel: What Does it All Mean, chapter 7. - The Kantian Perspective: Fairness and Justice, in: Russ Shafer-Landau: The Fundamentals of Ethics, pp. 154-167. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012 - Virtue Ethics, in: Russ Shafer-Landau: The Fundamentals of Ethics, pp. 252-271. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Virtue Ethics notes
A* in Religious Studies with a very high mark in Ethics. Eduqas board.
These are my notes (my babies) and they helped me all the way!
GOOD LUCK IN YOUR EXAMS! x
Philosophy Higher Level: META ETHICS REVISION NOTES
META ETHICS PHILOSOPHY NOTES FOR IB HL COURSE: PAPER 1 ON THE EXAM
Revision Guide includes notes on:
the is/ought question
Samenvatting Organisation & Society artikelen (cijfer 9,0)
Samenvatting van alle artikelen voor het vak Organisations & Society leerjaar 2017/2018
Stakeholder Capitalism - Freeman, Martin en Parmar
Social responsibility of Business is to increase its profits – Friedman
Globalization: what it is and who benefits – Gale Johnson
A review of the theories of corporate social responsibility: its evolutionary path and the road ahead – Lee
Making globalization work – the 2006 Geary lecture – Stiglitz
Organizational structures supporting rich survival – Achterbergh & Vriens
Virtue Ethics – Athanassoulis
Duty based ethics – BBC
Ethics – Fieser
Consequentialism – Haines
Kant’s ethics – McCormick
Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really counts – Mitchell, Agle & Wood
Focusing on value: reconciling CSR, sustainability and stakeholder approach in network world – Wheeler, Colbert and Freeman
Morality and strategy in stakeholder identification – Kaler
Institutional analysis and the paradox of corporate social responsibility - Campbell
An organizational field approach to corporate rationality: the role of stakeholder activism – O’connell, stephens, betz, shepard, hendry
Crafting an analytical framework I: Three pillars of institutions – Scott
Fostering co-ownership in sustainable international value chains – Case of Agrofair
BUS 309 - Graded Exam #1 (Already graded A )
BUS 309 - Graded Exam #1
Which ethical framework goes against the ethical principle of obeying certain duties or
responsibilities, no matter the end result?
a. Deontological framework of ethics.
b. Social justice through fairness framework of ethics.
c. Virtue ethics framework of ethics.
d. Utilitarian framework of ethics.
The branch of ethics that deals with the reasoning about how one should act is called
b. humanistic ethics.
c. normative ethics.
d. descriptive ethics.
Which among the following branches of study raises questions about justice, law, civic
virtues, and political philosophy?
a. Business studies
c. Descriptive ethics
d. Social ethics
Which among the following is not a legal right?
a. Equal opportunity
b. Collective bargaining as part of a union
c. Particular pension funds
d. Freedom from sexual harassment
Which among the following provides a strong support for democratic institutions and
b. Virtue ethics
c. Deontological ethics
d. Social justice
The study of various character traits that can contribute to, or obstruct, a happy and
meaningful human life is part of
a. philosophical ethics.
b. virtue ethics.
c. deontological ethics.
While considering the fact that anyone can make unethical choices, the questions that
are most difficult to answer are often those that are most important to answer in
a. understanding the perspective of the stakeholders.
b. analyzing the financial liabilities.
c. defining who we are.
d. justifying the decision to the media.
Understanding the change in attitude towards studying business ethics includes the
understanding that corporate scandals in the recent past have largely affected _____.
Which among the following frameworks of ethics becomes less practical with an
increase in the number of people, animals, etc that could be affected by decisions
a. Virtue ethics framework of ethics.
b. Utilitarian framework of ethics.
c. Social justice through fairness framework of ethics.
d. Deontological framework of ethics.
Which among the following distinguishes good people who make ethically responsible
decisions from good people who do not?
a. Moral incentives
b. Moral obligations
c. Ethical goal orientation
d. Moral imagination
In accordance to the criticism aimed at studying business ethics, many viewed it as a
mixture of _____ and personal opinion that could interfere with the functioning of a
a. abstract thinking
c. religious connotations
Specifically, in some people, a set of _____ inclines them to, without deliberation, act
b. do's and don'ts
d. ethical habits
Identify, among the following, one that is not a cognitive barrier to responsible, ethical
a. An ignorance that is willful and intentional
b. Considering limited alternatives
c. Not following simplified decision rules
Those beliefs and principles that provide the ultimate guide in a company's decisionmaking
b. core values.
c. historical milestones.
d. committee values.
Within a business setting, individuals must consider the ethical implications of
a. both personal and professional decision-making.
b. stakeholders' choices and personal decisions.
c. financial and ethical decision-making.
d. only professional decision-making.
The correct answer is: both personal and professional decision-making.
One helpful exercise for considering the effects of a decision on others is to
a. conduct a private debate.
b. speak to a trusted friend.
c. shift one's role.
d. practice everyday, what one preaches.
Respecting employee privacy while also adequately managing the workplace at a time
when workplace e-mail was in its infancy, and no laws regarding it were in place, is an
example for which one of the following?
a. Societies valuing freedom welcome laws that require more than the
b. Ethical responsibilities give rise to more and more regulations.
c. Obedience to law is sufficient to fulfill one's ethical duties.
d. Laws cannot anticipate every new business dilemma that might be
In the context of satisficing, the very fact that a decision was reached by _____ can
convince everyone involved that it must be the most reasonable decision.
b. normative channels
c. descriptive channels
A person who acts in a way that is based upon a careful consideration of _____ has
acted in a more ethically responsible way than a person who acts without deliberation.
a. the ethical issues
b. all stakeholders
c. their morals
d. the facts
Which among the following can result in a scenario where the number of regulated
areas becomes improbable and unmanageable?
a. Telling businesses that its ethical responsibilities end with obedience to
b. Assuming that law can anticipate every new dilemma that businesses
c. Maintaining that obedience to law is sufficient to fulfill one's ethical
d. Assuming that freedom valuing societies welcome laws requiring more than just an ethical minimum.
The essence of utilitarianism is
a. to compare the consequences of alternative actions.
b. its reliance on consequences.
c. its focus on just one consequence.
d. to ignore harmful consequences.
Immanuel Kant argued that there is one fundamental ethical principle that one has to
follow, no matter what the consequence. Identify it.
a. Speak the truth always.
b. Remain loyal to family.
c. Respect the dignity of individuals.
d. Always help the poor.
This inclines one to act or to choose one way rather than another.
c. Social ethics
Identify the step that precedes monitoring the outcome in making an ethically
a. Identifying the ethical issues involved
b. Comparing and weighing the alternatives based on consequences
c. Making a decision
d. Considering how the decision affects stakeholders involved
At its most basic level, _____ is/ are concerned with how we act and how we live our
What according to the authors will prove best for optimally satisfying the various
interests in the two approaches to utilitarianism?
a. Market-based solutions
b. Consumer-supplier partnerships
c. Deontological practices
d. Strict governmental regulations
The utilitarian tradition has a long history of relying on _____ for deciding on the ethical
legitimacy of alternative decisions.
c. variable analysis
d. social sciences
The ability of losing sight of the ethical aspects while involved in the financial aspect of
decisions is called
a. moral imagination.
b. descriptive ignorance.
c. morality lapse.
d. normative myopia.
One of the major challenges associated with ethical decision-making is better
understood by realizing that decisions involve
a. religious aspects to the process.
b. the interests of multiple stakeholders.
c. social norms beset by public expectations.
d. financial obligations.
Derived from an understanding of the definition of values, it is possible that the
corporate culture in any organization can also
a. be exceedingly exaggerated.
b. be nonexistent.
c. be guided by employee expectations.
d. be unethical in nature.
Examining business institutions from a social rather than an individual perspective is
referred to as
a. decision-making for social responsibility.
b. corporate social responsibility.
c. institutionalized ethical responsibility.
d. institutional morality.
_____ set the standards or guidelines for determining what one should do, how one
should act, what type of person one should be.
d. Social ethics
Under which of the following do the legislative (bureaucratic) side and the
administrative side of an organization work together?
a. Virtue ethics framework of ethics.
b. Utilitarian framework of ethics.
c. Social justice through fairness framework of ethics.
d. Deontological framework of ethics.
Philosophical ethics seeks foundations that all reasonable people can accept,
regardless of their
a. educational background.
b. economical background.
c. cultural background.
d. religious background.
Monitoring one's actions accordingly when faced with similar challenges in the future,
and to evaluate the implications of one's decisions are all an ongoing part of
a. comparing and weighing alternatives based on consequences.
b. monitoring and learning from the outcomes of the decisions.
c. comparing and weighing alternatives based implications for personal
d. identifying stakeholders and the effect of the decision on them.
Kant's version which directs us to act according to those rules that could be universally
agreed by all people forms part of the famous "Kantian _____."
a. hypothetical imperative
b. decisive correlations
c. categorical imperative
d. moral objectivism
Many businesses looking to hire graduates expect an impetus on teaching not just
information and knowledge about ethics, but also:
a. ethical behavior.
b. to train others at the workplace.
c. intervention in case of unethical practices.
d. humanitarian, political and psychological perspectives.
According to which type of ethical framework would child labor in any country be
a. Virtue ethics
b. Deontological ethics
d. Social justice
Identify the first step in making responsible ethical decisions.
a. Determine the facts
b. Consider the available alternatives
c. Identify the ethical issues
d. Identify and consider impact of decision on stakeholders
Which among the following justifies the assumption that humans possess special
dignity, and should be treated as ends in themselves?
a. Their ability to make rely on instinct.
b. Their ability to love and nourish their offspring.
c. Their ability to make free and rational choices.
d. Their ability to act according to conditioning.
Business Ethics Textbook Summaries Chapters 1, 2, 4 & Additional Material
Business Ethics 314 Summaries
from the textbook Business Ethics by Shaw - Chapters 1, 2, 4
And additional material: Virtue Ethics, Joseph R. Desjardins
Ethics - Virtue Ethics.pdf
Virtue Ethics is a normative ethical theory that is presented in this document thoroughly and easy to understand with up to date and in-depth knowledge provided by both textbooks. Summed up into one document.
The Universal Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative (50) One of Kant’s formulations
Philosophy 210 | Moral Thinking | Timmons | Spring 2016 | Final Exam Instructions For the final you will be asked to write an answer to any two of the five following questions. Each question is worth 50. Please submit a Blue Book by Tuesday May 3, the last class meeting. Final Exam: day & time: Tuesday May 10 from 8am to 10am. Place: Our regular classroom. 1. Theoretical Objections and Replies to Classical Utilitarianism (50). Write an essay in which you address at least the following points. (a) What is the aim of a theoretical objection to a moral theory (10) (b) A presentation of 2 of the 4 objections concerning deontological constraints (10) (c) A presentation of the 2 objections concerning demandingness (10) (d) An explanation of the “bold denial” and the “remote effects” replies to these objection (20) 2. Kant’s Ethics: The Universal Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative (50) One of Kant’s formulations of the Categorical Imperative is the Universal Law formulation. Write an essay in which you do the following: (a) Explain Kant’s universality tests (CC and CW tests), making sure to include a brief explanation of the following: (20) Kant’s Universal Law formulation of the Categorical Imperative How there are two tests associated with this formulation How the two tests are supposed to work (b) Use Kant’s tests to evaluate the action associated with this maxim: I will kill the person(s) who has seriously wronged me whenever the legal system has failed to bring the wrong-doer(s) to justice, in order to satisfy my desire for revenge. (10) (c) Explain, using examples, the main objections to Kant’s universality tests as presented in class. (20) 3. Egoism: Ethical and Psychological (50) Write an essay on ethical egoism (EE) and psychological egoism (PE) in which you address at least the following: (a) A presentation of EE, explaining its essential elements, including the concept of “agent utility.” (10) (b) A presentation of PE – what it is and what it is not. (20) (c) A presentation and critique of 1 of the 3 “popular” arguments for PE (10) (d) Evaluate EE according to the standard of publicity making use of Prisoner’s Dilemma to explain the objection based on this standard. (10). 4. Virtue Ethics: Virtue Accounts of Right Action (50) Write an essay on virtue accounts of right action (= VE) presented in class in which you address at least the following: (a) Explain what Virtue Ethics is, and the various tasks that a defender of this view must address. (10) (b) What is Pluralist Virtue Ethics, and how does it address cases of moral conflict? (10) (c) Explain Robert Johnson’s objection (as covered in class) to VE. (10) (d) Explain what is referred to as the “looming dilemma” for VE. (20
Organisations and Society (MAN-MOD004) summary of all mandatory articles
A complete summary of all mandatory articles for the course organisations and society (MAN-MOD004) for the master Organisational Design and Development in 2019/2020.
Freeman, E., Martin, K., and Parmar, B. (2007) Stakeholder Capitalism; Journal of Business Ethics; 74, pp. 305-314
Friedman, Milton (1970) The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits; The New York Times Magazine; September 13, 1970
Johnson, D.G. (2002) Globalization: what it is and who benefits; Journal of Asian Economics; 13, pp. 427-439
Lee, M.D.P. (2008) A review of the theories of corporate social responsibility: Its evolutionary path and the road ahead; International Journal of Management Reviews; 10, pp. 53-73.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2008) Making Globalisation Work – The 2006 Geary Lecture; The Economic and Social Review, 39(3), Winter 2008, pp. 171–190
Achterbergh, Jan & Dirk Vriens (2009) Organizational structures supporting rich survival. In: Organizations: social systems conducting experiments. (New York: Springer), Chapter 11, sections 11.1, 11.2 and 220.127.116.11: pp. 325-336
Athanassoulis, N. (2010) Virtue Ethics; In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
BBC - Ethics – Introduction to ethics: Duty-based ethics
Fieser, J. (2009) Ethics; In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Haines, W. (2006) Consequentialism; In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
McCormick, M. (2005) Kant’s Ethics (only sections 8 and 9); In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Kaler, John (2002) Morality and Strategy in Stakeholder Identification; Journal of Business Ethics; 39, pp. 91–99
Mitchell, R.K., B.R. Agle & D.J. Wood (1997) Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts; Academy of Management Review; 22 (4); pp. 853-886
Wheeler David, Barry Colbert and R. Edward Freeman (2003) Focusing on Value: Reconciling Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability and a Stakeholder Approach in a Network World; Journal of General Management; 28(3), pp. 1-28.
Campbell, John L (2006) Institutional Analysis and the Paradox of Corporate Social Responsibility; American Behavioral Scientist; 49(7), pp. 925-938
O\'Connell, L.L., Stephens, C.U., Betz, M., Shepard, J.M., & Hendry, J.R. (2005). An organizational field approach to corporate rationality: The role of stakeholder activism; Business Ethics Quarterly; 15(1), 93-111
Scott, R. (2008) Crafting an Analytic Framework I: Three pillars of institutions; In: Scott, R. (2008) Institutions and Organizations (Thousand Oaks: Sage), pp. 55-74.4
Scott, R. (2008) Crafting an Analytic Framework II: Content, agency, carriers, and levels; In: Scott, R. (2008) Institutions and Organizations (Thousand Oaks: Sage), pp. 87-104
Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing Legitimacy - Strategic and Institutional Approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571-610.
And the agrofair case which is optional and just related to the final assignment.
Taoist and Confucian Ethics: All the Comprehensive Study Notes
Introduction The traditions we study in this unit, Taoism and Confucianism, are the two most influential religions of the Chinese people. Taoism (also written Daoism) was founded by Lao Tsu (also written as Lao Tzi) in the sixth century BCE (the same century in which Buddhism and Jainism were founded in India). Confucianism, which some regard as a philosophy and others as a religion, was founded by Confucius, also in the sixth century BCE. Both traditions aspire to a path of harmony, a lived in balance with the “tao” or “dao” that permeates all reality. Our goal in this unit is to introduce the ethical teachings of these two East Asian traditions. Following the unit structure, we will: • Offer a brief history of China and the cultural context out of which the traditions of Taoism and Confucianism emerged; • introduce the founders of Taoism and Confucianism; • introduce the sacred texts of Taoism and Confucianism; • discuss the folk religion out of which Taoist and Confucian ethics emerged; • analyze and discuss Taoist and Confucian ethics: conduct, principles, worldview; • discuss the importance of virtue in these traditions; and • consider the meaning of “moral self” and “moral community” in Taoist and Confucian traditions. Learning objectives At the end of this unit you will be able to: 1. outline the historical and cultural context out of which Taoism and Confucianism emerged; 2. outline the history and development of these two traditions in their formative periods, identify their founders, and indicate what, for these traditions, are the main scriptural texts; 3. discuss the ethical outlook of the folk religions out of which Taoism and Confucianism emerged; 4. analyze the ethical teachings of the Taoist and Confucian traditions on the levels of conduct, principles, and foundation (worldview); 5. discuss the importance of virtue in Taoism and Confucianism; and 6. suggest how these traditions understand moral self and moral community. Ethics in World Religions RLGN 1420 Unit 6 1Assigned reading/viewing/listening Required readings Read the following from the required textbooks: • The World’s Religions: chapter 6, Daoism–The Way of Nature, and chapter 7, Confucianism— The Way of Virtue • Anthology of World Scriptures: chapter 6, Confucianism, and chapter 7, Daoism Suggested viewing • My Religion Lab: The World’s Religions: Daoism and Confucianism • Chapter 6 and 7 in the Companion website for Anthology of World Scriptures (do not submit any exercises to your instructor) Taoism and Confucianism: Founders of the traditions he World’s Religions, write two sentence definitions or explanations for each of the following: • Shang Dynasty • Daodejing • Zhuang Zi • Kung Fu-Tzu • Taoism • Confucianism The scriptures of Taoism and Confucianism: Sources for their ethical teachings Using your textbooks, as well as this manual, write out definitions of the following terms: • Three Caverns • Tao Tsang • Five Classics • Four Books • Analects Chinese folk religion: The ethics out of which Taoism and Confucianism emerged Analysis of Taoist and Confucian Ethics: Conduct, principles, foundation Anthology of World Scriptures: chapter 7, “Effortless Action,” a selection from the Zhuangzi which expounds on wu wei, the principle of non-assertion, noninterference, or “effortless action” After working carefully through the last two sections of the manual and the accompanying readings, define the following terms, indicating how each relates to ethics: • yin • yang • tao • Five Basic Relationships • wu wei • “effortless action” The importance of virtue discuss the important of virtue in Taoism and Confucianism; • in your answer, make reference to at least one scriptural text on virtue (either a Confucian or a Taoist text); and • explain how the two traditions differ in their attitudes to virtue. Moral self and moral community nalects—“collected sayings” of Confucius Ching—“Classics,” books of the Confucian canon Chuang-tzu—name of a Taoist, also part of the scriptural canon Master K’ung—Confucius ren (jen)—the virtue of benevolence or humaneness tao—“way,” also conduct or behavior Tao Te Ching—most important collection of the Taoist canon wu-wei—effortless action yin-yang—opposing cosmic forces that exist in reciprocal balance Additional readings Berthrong, John H. and Evelyn Nagai Berthrong. Confucianism: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Oneworld, 2000. Kirkland, Russell. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition. London and New York: Routledge, 2004