Hughes B. M. (2016). What is Pseudoscience and why is it popular?
Een samenvatting van Hughes B.M. (2016) What is pseudoscience and why is it so popular? Hoort bij probleem 5 \'What is Science?\' van het blok History and Methods of Psychology. Er wordt besproken wat pseudoscience is en wat de verschillen zijn tussen wetenschap en pseudowetenschap.
Hughes B. M. (2016). What is Pseudoscience and why is it popular?
Een samenvatting van Hughes B.M. (2016) What is pseudoscience and why is it so popular? Hoort bij probleem 5 'What is Science?' van het blok History and Methods of Psychology. Er wordt besproken wat pseudoscience is en wat de verschillen zijn tussen wetenschap en pseudowetenschap.
Philosophy of Science for IBA
Chapter 1.1 - 5.1 from 'Recipes of Science' and all lectures from Philosophy of Science of the first half of semester of year 2 from IBA (Tilburg University). The summary contains information from the lectures as well as information from the tutorials. By using a lot of examples it is easier to understand. I used different colors for different chapters which gives it a nice overview.
KAPLAN SC200 UNIT 1 QUIZ 2015
Question 1. Question :
Determine which of these questions could be researchable using the scientific method.
Under what conditions could bass live in a lake?
What was the artist thinking when he painted Mona Lisa?
Are UFOs related to crop circles?
Is there a supreme deity?
What is the meaning of life?
Question 2. Question :
A solution proposed for a problem that is reasonable, but untested could be called
Question 3. Question :
The scientific method depends on
clearly stated laws of nature.
accurate initial predictions.
communication of findings.
Question 4. Question :
Which statement is true about the discipline of science?
Science is a set of facts about the physical world.
Science provides answers to all questions about our environment.
Science is a tool for understanding our physical and biological environment.
Science and intuition are mutually exclusive.
Science encompasses all of pseudoscience and more.
Question 5. Question :
The scientific method
was invented by the Greek philosopher, Plato
is restricted to use in scientific laboratories
is a process used to understand our physical surroundings
always begins with observations
Question 6. Question :
When scientists have finished research and wish to communicate the results, they are most likely to do which of the following?
immediately repeat the research
call a press conference and announce pre-publication findings
sell their findings to a research and development company
write a concise paper and submit it to a scientific journal
submit an abstract to a popular science magazine
Question 7. Question :
After repeated experiments, scientists will usually arrive at a comprehensive explanation for a problem. That explanation is called
Question 8. Question :
Which of the following statements would be true of the scientific method?
The scientific method is a linear process starting with observation and following several other rigidly defined steps.
The scientific method is a continuous process by which people learn about the physical universe and share their knowledge with others.
Scientists may report findings in such a way that experiments and observations remain known only to the original experimenters.
When the results of an experiment do not fit the hypothesis, a scientist may ethically discard the results and repeat the experiment.
The scientific method has no connection to the way people conduct their lives every day.
Question 9. Question :
Which of the following is a question which can be answered by science?
Which movie star is the most beautiful?
Which rock group puts on the best stage performance?
Which planet in our solar system has the coldest moon?
Which spoken language is the most pleasant to the human ear?
Question 10. Question :
Laws of nature can be characterized by saying that they
arise from repeated observation but no testing.
represent our best understanding of how the universe works in certain circumstances.
are not subject to change based upon additional observations.
always have exceptions and other defects.
are the same as absolute truths.
Question 11. Question :
When scientists apply the scientific method to problems
more questions may be generated
whole theories may be changed or rejected
more hypotheses may be generated
all of these are correct
Question 12. Question :
Peer review in science
demoralizes most young scientists before they can become established.
is accomplished in the editorial offices of major scientific journals.
causes delays between the conclusion of an experiment and the communication of the results.
is conducted in confidence by a panel of experts in the field.
has become outdated since the advent of computers.
Question 13. Question :
Which of the following is best referred to as a pseudoscience?
IVY SOCI111 Module 9 Quiz 2018
According to Nell Irvin Painter, author of The History of White People, white people:
typically just see themselves as “individuals.”
have a great sense of awareness of their status as white.
are made acutely aware of their identity as white by society.
are losing their advantaged status in society.
When Shelly, a white American, sees a Middle Eastern man, she worries that he may be a terrorist. She would never say this and would never take action on these thoughts, but nonetheless, they come into her mind. Despite her commitment to fair treatment, she is harboring:
Which term refers to the more overt form of resistance through a movement such as revolution or genocide or through nonviolent protest?
The Supreme Court’s landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down what doctrine?
slavery now, slavery always
survival of the fittest
separate but equal
0 / 1 pts
During Darwin’s time, some people believed there were several different species of humans. Darwin rejected this view, siding with the ________ who said humans are one species.
Which group believed that humans were one species, united under God?
Under Johann Caspar Lavater’s theory of ________, people with light skin were thought to have higher intellect.
Reverend Samuel Stanhope Smith’s proposal that skin color should be viewed as a product of climate and therefore not correlated to inner virtues (e.g., intelligence, character, personality) suggests that he felt:
skin color correlates with moral virtues.
people were all the same beneath their skin.
race must be based on observable qualities such as skin color, not inner virtues.
weather, and thus human difference, was controlled by God.
During the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to escape Jim Crow laws in the rural South. This resulted in:
an immediate improvement in the lives of African Americans.
competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks.
many blacks“passing” as white.
movement of more whites to the South.
An 1851 excerpt from Harper’s Weekly magazine describes a certain racial group as lawbreaking, idle, thriftless, poor, and barbarian. What group is this excerpt describing?
Taken all together, these populations may be referred to as:
Latino or Hispanic.
The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson upheld:
black men’s right to vote.
When Blumenbach declared Caucasians the superlative of the races, he was following a popular line of thought that, in today’s view, mistakenly assumed that:
genetic quality must be regulated by governments.
whites were superior because of their skin color.
skull size and shape indicated human worth.
the capacity for literacy was genetic.
Michelle is doing a school project that involves visiting a local mosque and interviewing Muslims about life in Indiana. What advice would Jen’nan Read likely give to Michelle?
Be sure to interview both men and women, because gender is so important.
Take account of her“knapsack of privilege” before she begins her fieldwork.
Don’t confuse ethnicity and religion, wrongly assuming that “Muslim” and “Arab” are one and the same.
Don’t assume that Muslims support terrorism, because they do not.
In one study of television portrayals of Arabs, researchers found basic myths that continue to surround this group, such as:
They are very poor.
They are frequently incarcerated.
They are uncivilized and barbaric.
They practice many religions.
DNA testing is generally seen as a benefit to justice, because it allows for more precise identification of criminals. Sociologists see that forensic genetics also has a tendency to reproduce existing inequalities, because:
low-income people accused of crimes are unable to pay for their own forensic genetic testing.
people who have committed prior crimes, and those with relatives who have committed crimes, are more likely to be caught.
the criminal justice system is broken in so many ways that forensic genetics will have a miniscule benefit.
forensics is a human science, and the unacknowledged racism of analysts will influence results.
Gordon is a graduate student wanting to develop a projection model for understanding race in the future. He consults with sociologist Jennifer Lee, and she recommends that he study:
the black/white divide, because it is a common thread from the founding of America into the future.
the “browning of America,” because biracial populations are growing so quickly.
ethnicity instead of race, because culture is the dividing line of the future.
the “black/nonblack”divide, because distinctions between blacks and all other groups combined are becoming increasingly important.
Nancy is a white woman who believes all races are equal, and she is committed to civic groups that promote diversity. She is walking down the street and passes a white man. She acknowledges him with a nod. She sees a black man coming down the street, and she crosses to the other side of the street to avoid passing by him because his blackness makes her feel unsafe. Robert Merton would describe Nancy as a(n):
Ontological equality is the notion that:
physical characteristics are markers of the soul.
everyone is created equal by divine design.
social and biological traits can be traced through our lineage.
the curse of Ham makes equality today impossible.
Prejudice is to discrimination as thinking is to:
Phrenology was an early-twentieth-century pseudoscience that read people’s intelligence, capacities, and race from:
differences in head formation.
bone structure and strength.
variations in body size.
genetic documentation of ancestors.
Which term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits?
When Asians are referred to as “the model minority,” this refers to their:
internal integration among various Asian countries of origin.
resentment toward stereotypes.
success in the media industry.
America’s first naturalization law, passed in 1790, granted citizenship to:
all white people.
anyone who had fought in the Revolutionary War.
former British citizens.
free white persons.
A society is pluralistic if no distinct ethnic group is statistically:
equal to another.
in the minority.
the dominant group in government.
in the majority.
James is a black man, and Mike is his white friend. James and Mike are having a disagreement about what needs to happen in order for race relations to improve in America. According to Gunnar Myrdal’s theory in An American Dilemma, James probably emphasizes ________, and Mike probably emphasizes ________.
historic slavery; Martin Luther King, Jr.
health care; education
In the nineteenth century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to:
Which group believed that different races were distinct species?
A hypothetical group of immigrants come to the United States, settle in, learn English, send their children to public schools, and become economically self-sufficient. Robert Park’s model explained this journey as:
minority group adjustment.
the geographic immigrant process.
Due to both birthrate and the increased tendency among whites to embrace their Native roots, the Native American population is likely to:
plateau, as white privilege encourages whites to stop embracing their Native roots.
be recategorized as an “ethnic group” instead of a “race.”
be counted in the U.S. Census by tribe.
PHI210 Week 11 Assignment Exam 2 Latest 2017
Which of the following is MOST likely to be a sign of pseudoscience?
While sitting in a parking lot after work, Brandon witnesses someone step around a garbage bag on the ground. This leads Brandon to question people's reaction to litter. If Brandon were to conduct an investigation, which part of the investigation will he have already completed?
A scientist is hired to do research for a tobacco company. Anyone reading the scientist's conclusions should be aware that the scientist may be which of the following?
While scientific explanations provide compelling evidence for claims and produce verifiable insights, they are also _________.
Steven has to produce a survey for his class project due tomorrow, although he really wants to go to the local high school football game tonight with his father. Steven decides to hand out a survey at the gate of the football stadium which holds roughly 1,000 fans. The survey reads, "Do you prefer sport activities that focus on group achievement or individual achievements?" Which of the following explains why this question could lead to obtaining poor data?
Which of the following is MOST likely to lead to bad decisions?
Clinton graduated college with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. While in school he turned down the option to stay an extra year and earn a master's degree in engineering. Currently, Clinton is having a difficult time finding employment as a mathematician, while all of his engineering friends easily found jobs. What question is Clinton likely asking himself when reflecting upon his decision to not get the master's degree, which has made it more difficult for him to find a job?
Which of the following is something that can lead to making good decisions?
Bryan is the manager of his company's IT department. One morning a server cluster loses power. Bryan first checks the power supply, the power cables, the wall outlet, and finally the circuit breaker to find what caused the power outage. What did Bryan do?
Wallace is having a frustrating day at work after his manager changes deadlines on him, leaves him out of the loop in an important email chain, and turns down his time-off request. In the middle of a meeting that afternoon, Wallace stands up, announces that he's quitting, and walks out of the office. Which decision-making misstep did Wallace commit?
What is sarcasm?
"They saw the woman with the binoculars" is an example of which type of ambiguity?
Which statement BEST describes the relationship between defining terms and clear thinking?
Which list includes terms that are most often used as qualifiers or "weasel words"?
A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?
A bank states that its decision to offer home loans at an extremely low initial, but variable, rate is rooted in the idea that all have a right to owning an affordable home. The bank does not state that the loans are packaged in a product sold to another, larger bank that may or may not work with customers in difficult situations. The smaller bank is no longer exposed to the risk of longer-term loans, and makes a large profit. Which moral theory is the bank operating under?
Which of the following MOST clearly illustrates a moral dilemma?
How do excuses and justifications differ?
Every day on his way to work, Frederic stops by a large chain hotel at which he is not staying, walks into the lobby, and helps himself to the continental breakfast. He believes this is the right thing to do because it saves him a lot of money and is very convenient. What ethical theory is he using to justify his actions?
Which theory is characterized by doing what is best for others instead of oneself?
Annie argues that reducing carbon emissions in the United States will take a toll on the economy far exceeding any potential environmental benefits. Leo responds by arguing that several Scandinavian countries produce less carbon than the United States. What fallacy is Leo committing?
The two parts of an argument are _________ and _________.
When considering learning more about the topic of stem cell research, the most appropriate website to visit is most likely to be _________.
Which of the following statements uses "innuendo"?
Which of the following is an irrelevant question to ask when evaluating a claim?
PHI210 Final Exam 2017
Question 1 Courtnie has been allergic to cats as long as she can remember; this requires her doctor to give her an allergy shot. On her 26th birthday she spends the day in a house with cats and has no reaction. Therefore the allergy shot has helped Courtnie overcome her reaction to cats. The explanation for why she had no reaction describes which of the following?
Selected Answer: causal relationship
Correct Answer: causal relationship
Question 2 Cliff wants to determine whether people prefer red apples or green apples. In order to obtain good results, he decides to conduct this survey at a car festival. Out of the 5000 people who attended the festival, Cliff surveys 10 attendees randomly. The survey reads, "Which do you prefer, red apples or green apples?" Seven of ten people surveyed answer that they prefer red apples. From his survey, Cliff concludes that most people prefer red apples. Cliff's results may not be reliable because of which of the following problems with his study?
Selected Answer: small sample size
Correct Answer: small sample size
Question 3 Mary grows hundreds of fruit trees in her orchard. The trees range in age, size, and type. Mary's neighbor states, "Now that Mary has listened to my advice, 93% of her trees are bearing fruit." What makes this conclusion difficult to evaluate?
Selected Answer: There is missing back ground information
Correct Answer: There is missing back ground information
Question 4 A scientist is hired to do research for a tobacco company. Anyone reading the scientist's conclusions should be aware that the scientist may be which of the following?
Selected Answer: biased
Correct Answer: biased
Question 5 Which of the following practices would MOST likely be considered pseudoscience?
Selected Answer: hypnotizing a person in order to ensure that they are immuneto a communicable disease
Correct Answer: hypnotizing a person in order to ensure that they are immuneto a communicable disease
Question 6 Matt and his roommate Gamal argue repeatedly about wearing shoes in the house versus taking them off at the door. Eventually, both are fed up with constantly arguing. They decide to sit down and talk, and not get up until they come to a resolution. This is an example of which decision-making strategy?
Selected Answer: deciding to be committed to ²ndinga solution
Correct Answer: deciding to be committed to ²ndinga solution
Question 7 Which of the following is the order of the problem-solving process?
Selected Answer: define the problem, analyze the problem, generate options, evaluate the options, make a decision, implement and reject
Correct Answer: define the problem, analyze the problem, generate options, evaluate the options, make a decision, implement and reject
Question 8 Bryan is the manager of his company's IT department. One morning a server cluster loses power. Bryan first checks the power supply, the power cables, the wall outlet, and finally the circuit breaker to find what caused the power outage. What did Bryan do?
Selected Answer: He explored potential causes of the problem
Correct Answer: He explored potential causes of the problem
Question 9 Which of the following BEST demonstrates "articulating why the decision is necessary?"
Selected Answer: Due to the need to serve an increasing number of clients, Nada decides to hire another technician.
Correct Answer: Due to the need to serve an increasing number of clients, Nada decides to hire another technician.
Question 10 Dharamdas is looking to buy a new laptop since his old laptop has finally stopped working. He has made a list of all the laptop brands that could potentially fit his needs, and now he is reading reviews and narrowing down his list based on what he learns. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Dharamdas practicing?
Selected Answer: evaluating options
Correct Answer: evaluating options
Question 11 To Albert, the word "love" brings up positive feelings about his son; to Raj, it brings up negative feelings about a previous relationship; and to Anthony, it refers to the warm feeling he gets during family gatherings. Which category of meaning are these statements describing?
Selected Answer: Connotative meaning
Correct Answer: Connotative meaning
Question 12 Using the term "snail mail" to describe postal mail is an example of which of these?
Selected Answer: dysphemism
Correct Answer: dysphemism
Question 13 Which statement best describes the relationship between intent and form?
Selected Answer: Intent is the meaning behind the sentence and form is the literal grammatical structure of language
Correct Answer: Intent is the meaning behind the sentence and form is the literal grammatical structure of language
Question 14 A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?
Selected Answer: determine what a particular word means given the specificcontext
Correct Answer: determine what a particular word means given the specificcontext
Question 15 Why might advertisers find it appealing to promise that they have a "better" product than the competition?
Selected Answer: Using vague language will influence more customers to buy their productand protect their own claims from being disproven
Correct Answer: Using vague language will influence more customers to buy their productand protect their own claims from being disproven
Question 16 What is an inherent problem with moral relativism?
Selected Answer: It can become contradictory; two people can perceive one action as right and wrong
Correct Answer: It can become contradictory; two people can perceive one action as right and wrong
Question 17 Consider the following argument: Premise 1: Michael took an apple from the farm stand. Premise 2: Stealing is wrong. Conclusion: Therefore, Michael was wrong for stealing the apple. The statement, "stealing is wrong" is an example of which of the following?
Selected Answer: Premise that makes a moral statement about a moral principle
Correct Answer: Premise that makes a moral statement about a moral principle
Question 18 Which of the following BEST illustrates a justification?
Selected Answer: Eric believes stealing is not okay unless you are stealing food because you're hungry
Correct Answer: Eric believes stealing is not okay unless you are stealing food because you're hungry
Question 19 What makes an argument an ethical argument?
Selected Answer: A conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation
Correct Answer: A conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation
Question 20 Every day on his way to work, Frederic stops by a large chain hotel at which he is not staying, walks into the lobby, and helps himself to the continental breakfast. He believes this is the right thing to do because it saves him a lot of money and is very convenient. What ethical theory is he using to justify his actions?
Selected Answer: ethical egoism
Correct Answer: ethical egoism
Question 21 Which of the following statements uses "innuendo"?
Selected Answer: Wal-Mart doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking.
Correct Answer: Wal-Mart doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking
Question 22 Which of the following is an example of the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy?
Selected Answer: The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War inIraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming.
Correct Answer: The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War inIraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming.
Question 23 Adam posted in a thread about theoretical physics. In his post he refuted General Relativity and cited a paper that was recently self-published by one person on her own personal website and had no references to other works in the field. Which important question did Adam not answer sufficiently when evaluating the cited paper?
Selected Answer: What person or organization vouches for thecredibility of information on this website?
Correct Answer: What person or organization vouches for thecredibility of information on this website?
Question 24 If someone who did not accept scientific claims that climate is changing read "nothing about the science of climate change can be called into question at this point, because there is a consensus among 97 percent of scientists," that person could, based on this quote, make the argument that there is a _________ fallacy in the climate change argument.
Selected Answer: appeal to popularity
Correct Answer: appeal to popularity
Question 25 When listening to people debating a topic, a critical thinker should ignore _________.
Selected Answer: if they are dressed in a professional manner
Correct Answer: if they are dressed in a professional manner
Chapter 2 Science Fiction Bad Science and Pseudoscience
This chapter define life and lists many characteristics of life. Each property of water is also explained. There is also a brief chemistry section needed for biology students. Macromolecules are explored; such as, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Evolutionary theory is also described.