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Study guide

TEAS STUDY GUIDE 2020

TEAS STUDY GUIDE 2020 READING text? Key Ideas and Details • Summarize a complex text: What am I reading about? What is important to know about • Summarize - Define main idea, highlight most important supporting details and arguments, contains same message as original text • Paraphrase - Rephrasing, “translates”, ● into own words including details Infer the logical conclusion from a reading selection: Key Terms • Directly stated info - Aim to draw conclusions from info stIated within a passage (no implications) • Inference - Piece of info that is implied but not written outright • Implications - Things that the author does not say directly, but readers can assume based off info Identify the topic, main idea, and supporting details: Who/what is paragraph about? • Topic/main idea - Topic is the subject of text, and main idea is most important point being made • Supporting details - Provide evidence and backing for the main point • Topic summary/sentences - Encapsulate main idea of text (beginning of each section) 4. Follow a given set of directions: Terms that signify order, relationship among steps function in transport or signal transfer 5. Identify specific info from a printed communication: Memo, announcements, advertisements 6. Identify info from a graphic representation of info: graphic, legend, representation, scale 7. Recognize events in a sequence: When, how often, length of time, chronological, sequential B. Craft and Structure • Distinguish between fact and opinion, biases, and stereotypes: Proven, tendencies, categorizations • Fact/opinion- Fact can be analyzed, proved or disproved. Opinion is personal thoughts or feelings (beliefs, feelings…) • Biases/stereotypes - Biases are unfair/inaccurate and author ignores reasonable counterargument. Stereotypes are applied specifically to a group or place 2. Recognize the structure of texts in various formats: Know the modes, compare/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution • Persuasive - Author convinces reader to believe something about a topic • Problem/solution - Problem presented followed by a solution, challenges reader to take action • Expository - Author informs, explains, or tells how to • Cause/effect - Cause (since, because, due too…) and effect (consequently, piece of writing: Synthesize info from the text to form a prediction, make an inference, and form a conclusion and cite evidence to support prediction, inference, or conclusion • Foreshadowing - An author’s hints for an event to come • Prediction - A reader’s guess of events to come 3. Compare and contrast themes from print and other source: List similarities and differences across different themes, recognize similar themes across cultures, compare/contrast a theme from one author to another/topic and themes across genres • Gtherefore…) • Compare/contrast - Compare (both, same, too, like, as well…) and contract (but, however, yet, instead…) • Procedure - First, next, then, last, in closing… • Descriptive - Focuses on particular subject and attempts to depict subject to be clear to readers • Narrative - Fiction or nonfiction story. Must have plot, characters, and figurative language • Technical - Describes complex object or process 3. Interpret the meaning of words and phrases using context: Distinguish between connotation, denotation, and figurative language • Denotation - Nonfiction, literal meaning of word (dictionary def) • Connotation - Beyond denotation by including emotional reaction, the implied meaning of a word or idea • Figurative - Figure of speech • Simile - Comparison between unlike things by using like or as • Metaphor - Comparison between unlike things without using like or as • Personification - Giving human attributes to something nonhuman 4. Determine the denotative meaning of words: Identify the correct definition of a word and a source to find vocabulary definitions 5. Evaluate the author’s purpose in a given text: Ask yourself whether the author is trying to persuade, inform, or entertain • Narrative - Often serve to entertain an audience • Informational - Used to inform readers about a specific topic • Persuasive - Advertisements, newspapers, made to persuade 6. Evaluate the author’s point of view in a given text: Think about who the author is, who they are associated with, type of publication, whether info is face or opinion • Fact-checking - Verifying facts and statements in text • Peer-reviewed journal - Published writings that have been analyzed by experts in the field 7. Use text features: Find headings/subheadings, identify features (key, legend, bold/italic, footnote, glossary, index, TOC…) and use navigational tools in media • Glossary - Where to find word definitions Index - Lists topics and page numbers where to find them Table of Contents - What pages to turn for list of chapters C. Integration of knowledge and ideas • Identify primary sources in various media: Distinguish between primary sources and other types of documents • Primary source - A firsthand document or source created at the time in question • Secondary source - Secondhand account of events • Tertiary source - A compilation of primary and secondary sources 2. Use evidence from text to make predictions and inferences, and draw conclusions about a genre - A group of related writings or other media • Social commentary - Use of rhetoric to make statements about current culture • Social structure - The system and relationships between groups of society • Theme - A foundational concept engaged with by a piece of art 4. Evaluate an argument and its specific claims: Identify an author’s argument and supporting evidence, and examine the info that supports the argument to determine its relevance and sufficiency 5. Evaluate and integrate data from multiple sources in various formats: Chart, diagram, graph...how does info fit together and what does it mean? ● Science A natomy and Physiology • Cell Structure • Ribosomes - Synthesize proteins • Golgi Apparatus - Synthesizing material outside of cell • Vacuoles - Storage, digestion, waste removal • Cytoskeleton - Shape/support cell • Microtubules - Part of cytoskeleton • Cytosol - Liquid material in cell • Cell membrane - Defines cell as barrier and allows enter/exit of materials • ER - Smooth or rough. Transport system of cell • Mitochondria - Generates ATP, powerhouse b. Animal cells i. Centrosome - Pairs of centrioles, involved in mitosis ii. Centriole - Cylinders involved in cellular division iii. Lysosome - Digests proteins, lipids, and carbs and transports undigested substances to membrane for removal iv. Cilia - Cause cell to move v. Flagella - whip tail to move cell c. Mitosis i. Interphase - Cell prepares for division by replicating genetic/cytoplasmic material -longest phase ii. Prophase - Chromatin thickens into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate. Pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of cell and spindle fibers form iii. Metaphase - Spindle moves to center of cell and chromosome pairs align along center of spindle structure iv. Anaphase - Chromosome pairs pull apart into daughter chromosomes v. Telophase - Spindle disintegrates, nuclear membrane reforms or is pinched vi. Cytokinesis - Physical splitting of cell d. Meiosis i. Same as mitosis except happens twice, results in 4 daughter cells instead of 2. Only in gametes. e. Respiratory System i. Perfusion - The passage of fluid to an organ or tissue ii. Pleura - A membrane around the lungs and inside the chest cavity iii. Surfactant - Fluid secreted by alveoli and found in the lungs iv. Tidal Volume - The amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation v. Trachea - Windpipe which connects the larynx to the lungs vi. Ventilation - Movement of air in and out of the body vii. The medulla oblongata controls respiration viii. Right lung has 3 lobes, left lung has 2 lobes f. Cardiovascular System i. Arteries carry blood AWAY from heart, veins carry blood to heart ii. Pulmonary Loop - Carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium (To lungs then body) iii. Systemic Loop - Carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body, returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium (To body) iv. Systole - 1. Ventricles contract 2. AV valves (mitral and tricuspid) close = “lub” v. Diastole - 1. Ventricles fill 2. Semilunar valves close = “dub” vi. Sinoatrial node - “pacemaker” of heart vii. White blood cells divided into leukocytes and lymphocytes g. GI System i. Saliva provides amylase and lipase to initiate chemical digestion ii. Bolus passes through pharynx, the epiglottis closes the tracheal openings, and food passes through the esophagus. Bolus turns into chyme iii. Chemical digestion of proteins is initiated in the stomach by the action of pepsin, which is activated by acid and autocatalyst iv. Three main stomach secretions: Pepsinogen (chief cells), mucous (goblet cells), and HCl (parietal cells) v. Gallbladder - Stores bile Large Intestine - Vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored Liver - Produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and more Pancreas - Gland of digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices Small Intestine - Includes duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs h. Neuromuscular System i. Afferent nerves - Sensory nerves that send messages to the CNS ii. Efferent nerves - Motor nerves that send messages to muscles iii. ANS - Autonomic nervous system controls involuntary actions including cardiac and smooth muscle, heart, digestion, and breathing iv. Actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments) are strands of protein that make up sarcomere units i. Reproductive System i. The prostate and seminal vesicles produce the fluids necessary for lubricating and nourishing the sperm ii. The vas deferens, urethra, and penis form the conduit through which sperm is ejected iii. Females produce estrogen from the ovaries, which causes the egg to mature in the ovary Graafian follicle and the uterine endometrium to thicken iv. A surge of LH, luteinizing hormone, from the pituitary causes the developing egg to be released. The empty Graafian follicle is now called the corpus luteum and produces large amounts of progesterone to prepare the endometrium for implantation of the egg i. Integumentary System i. Three layers: epidermis, dermis (sweat glands, hair follicles, nerve endings, capillaries), and hypodermis (Blood vessels, nerves) ii. Sudoriferous glands excrete minerals such as magnesium, chloride, and sodium iii. Sebaceous glands produce sweat iv. Sweat glands are apocrine and eccrine j. Endocrine System i. Adrenal gland - Gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions ii. Parathyroid - Gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone iii. Pineal - Gland near the center of the brain then helper T cells encounters a cytotoxic T cell that recognizes the same antigen, it produces cytokines that activate the cytotoxic T cell. The cytotoxic T cells then searches out and destroys any cell with that signature iv. The helper T cell also activates the B cell, which causes them to multiply into plasma cells, which produce large amounts of antibody. If antigen levels subside, plasma cells stop making antibodies and produce memory cells that remember the antigen m. Skeletal System i. Bones synthesize blood and immune cells, as well as store calcium, phosphate, and lipids ii. 4 major types: Long, short, flat, irregular iii. Canaliculi - Microscoping canals in ossified bone Cartilage - Tough, elastic connective tissue Collagen - The primary structural proteins of connective tissue Haversian Canal - Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves Lamellae - Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls Lining Cells - Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts Osteoblasts - Cells that make bone Osteoclasts - Cells that remove bone Osteocytes - Bone cells Osteons - Cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone ● Volkmann Canal - Channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with Haversian canals Periosteum - Fibrous sheath that covers bone and contains blood vessels and nerves Hydroxyapatite - rich in phosphate, found in osteon B. Life and Physical Sciences • Macromolecules - Polymers joined together by covalent bonds between the monomeric units (bonds made my water removal, or dehydration) (polymers can be broken down with addition of water, hydrolysis, releasing monomers and energy) CARBS, LIPIDS, PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS • Carbohydrates - Sugars and starches, which the body breaks down into glucose • Functions include structural functions (cellulose, chitin), energy storage (amylose, amylopectin, and glycogen), and recognition molecules (glycoproteins, glycolipids) • CnH2nOn usual formula ii. Lipids - Proteins that are composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon. Fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water (hydrophobic) • Functions are structure and storage iii. Protein - Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds (20 different amino acids) • Amino acids all share an amino group and a carboxylic acid group • Fibrous, hydrophobic molecules like keratin and collagen have hydrophobic amino acids on their surface, are not soluble in water, and are found in structural molecules (hair, nails..) • Globular proteins have hydrophilic surface amino acids and are soluble in water (hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes) • Membrane proteins have a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids sandwiched between layers of hydrophilic amino acids and are found embedded in membranes where they enzyme's, structure, transport, and immune iv. Enzymes - Class of proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without being consumed in the reaction • Speed up a reaction by lowering the energy required by the system to initiate the reaction • Reactions can be exergonic (release energy) or endergonic (require energy) v. Nucleic Acids - Long molecules made of nucleotides; DNA and RNA • DNA found in chromosomes in nucleus in cell, and stores hereditary information. Contains nucleotides composed of a deoxyribose sugar, one of four nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine) and a phosphate molecule • RNA consists of ribonucleotides containing a ribose sugar, a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil) and are typically linked in a single-stranded molecule • Functions as hereditary and regulation • RNA mediates the conversion of the info stored in DNA into the proteins that are encoded by genes • Messenger RNA molecules are copies of the genetic info contained in DNA that is carried to ribosomes where catalytic ribosomal RNA molecules and transfer RNAs work together to make a function protein • Errors in sequence are mutations and usually interfere with protein function b. Chromosomes, genes, DNA i. DNA • 64 possible combos of bases (codons). Each codon specifies one amino acid, and these codons instruct ribosomes to assemble the AA in a particular order • Gene - A “sentence” made of a specific order of codons that produces a protein • Chromosome - A “chapter” linking sentences with “punctuation marks” that regulate where a gene starts and ends, and which genes are read in which cell • The two strands that make up the DNA double helix are “read” by the cell in the 5 to 3 direction. The left strand is read from top to bottom, and the right strand is read from bottom to top • Base pairs A-T linked by two hydrogen bonds, C-G linked by three c. Law of Heredity i. Parents are chosen to have pure breeding traits, one dominant and one recessive, this means that the genome of one parents contains two alleles for the dominant trait (homozygous dominant genotype) and the other parent has two alleles for the recessive trait (homozygous recessive genotype) ii. Monohybrid inheritance - AKA Mendel’s First Law, or the Law of Segregation, refers to the inheritance of a single trait. The parents are homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive iii. Heterozygous - The condition of having two different alleles one the two chromosomes iv. Dihybrid inheritance - AKA Mendel’s Second Law, or the Law of Independent Assortment, examines the simultaneous inheritance of two separate traits, present on two different sets of chromosomes • Dihybrid Ratio - 9:3:3:1 v. Non-Mendelian Inheritance - Occurs when there are factors other than dominant/recessive in play, such as multiple alleles (blood groups A, B and O), incomplete dominance-recessive relationships that lead to an intermediate (pink flowers), combination inheritance (AB blood group), and interactions between genes called epistasis. • If 3:1 or 9:3:3:1 relationship is not obtained d. Basic Atomic Structure i. Anion - A negatively charged ion Cation - A positively charged ion Covalent Bond - A chemical bond in which electron pairs are shared between atoms Ion - A positively or negatively charged atom or molecule Ionic Bond - The bond between two oppositely charged ions. Compounds are soluble in water and conduct electricity. Formed by transfer of electrons between atoms. Isotope - Where the numbers of neutrons in different atoms of the same element can vary Orbital - An area around the nucleus where an electron can be found Valence electron - An electron in an outer orbital that can form bonds with other atoms ii. The number of protons gives the atomic number of an atom The number of protons plus neutrons gives the atomic mass of the atom Atoms are neutral and have equal numbers of protons and electrons iii. The periodic table arranges atoms by increasing atomic number Atoms with similar properties have the same number of valence electrons S Orbital: 2 electrons P Orbital: 6 electrons D Orbital: 18 electrons F Orbitals: 32 electrons Gaining electrons typically happens in atoms with valences greater than 4, and losing electrons typically happens in atoms with valence less than 4 e. Characteristic properties of substances i. Boiling point - The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into vapor Chemical properties - Characteristics of a material that present during a chemical reaction or chemical change Density - The amount of mass per volume Diffusion - Mingling of substances and movement from areas of high to low concentration Extensive Properties - Properties that depend on the state of matter Intensive Properties - Properties that do not depend on the state of matter Melting point - The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid Nonpolar - A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons Osmosis - Passage of fluid through a membrane Physical properties - Observable properties of matter Polar - A molecule that has negative and positive sides Specific heat capacity - The amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 degree Celsius f. Changes of state in matter i. Boiling - Liquid at a temperature at which it is changing to a vapor Condensation - Changing of vapor to a gas or liquid Critical Point - The temperature at which the liquid and gas phases of a substance have the same density Freezing - Changing from a liquid to a solid due to temperature Gas - A state of matter composed of molecules in constant random motion Liquid - A state of matter that has definition volume but not definite shape Melting - Changing from a solid to a liquid due to temperature Phase diagram - A graph of physical states of a substance under varying temperature and pressure Solid - A state of matter that retains its shape and density when not contained Sublimation - Changing from a gas to a solid without becoming a liquid Triple Point - The temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a pure substance coexist ii. According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory, molecular motion changes as heat is added or removed. As the temperature of a substance increases, the intermolecular forces that hold the molecules together are broken, causing the molecules to move away from each other • Melting requires an addition of heat, which causes the molecules to become more energized and increases their vibrational and translational motion • Boiling requires the addition of heat to change from liquid to gas • Freezing and condensation both require the removal of heat to change from a liquid to a solid or a gas to a liquid iii. The phase of a substance depends on temperature and pressure • Increasing temperature has a tendency to move the particles of matter apart, and increasing pressure has a tendency to pack them together • At the triple point, solid, liquid, a gas coexist. At the critical point, liquid and gas coexist g. Chemical Reactions i. Acid - A substance with a pH less than 7 Base - A substance with a pH greater than 7 Catalyst - A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation rate required without undergoing permanent chemical change Compound - A substance made of two or more elements Element - Pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances Enzyme - Acts as catalyst Organic molecule - A molecule found in a living thing that contains carbon ii. 5 Basic Chemical Reactions: • Synthesis • Decomposition • Single Replacement • Double Replacement • Combustion h. Scientific Investigation i. Control variable - Something kept constant during an experiment Dependent variable - What is measured in an experiment as a possible effect Independent variable - What is measured in an experiment as a possible cause • KNOW HORMONES AND WHAT ORGANS PRODUCE THEM (not so much in the brain such as pineal [melatonin] or pituitary [maybe know the basics] but endocrine system such as pancreas [insulin] adrenal [adrenalin] etc…)That secretes melatonin development iv. Pituitary - Gland at the base of the brain that controls growth and v. Thymus - Lymphoid organ that produces T-cells vi. Thyroid - Gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate vii. Some non-polar, fat-soluble hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, are released in pattern set by age and development, actions long lived vii. Other polar, water-soluble hormones, such as epinephrine, are released acutely in response to stress, and actions are short lived viii. The nervous and endocrine systems integrate at the hypothalamus ix. Hypothalamus receives signals, signals activate pituitary, this sends releasing hormones to other glands in the body that controls their hormone production. The circulatory system receives the hormones which goes to target cell or organ k. Genitourinary System i. Kidneys are primarily responsible for filtering blood, creating urine, stabilizing water balance, maintaining blood pressure, and producing the active form of vit D ii. The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron iii. The kidney is divided into the cortex and medulla iv. The glomerulus of the nephron located in the renal cortex filters blood to form a dilute plasma-like filtrate, which is concentrated in the proximal and distal convoluted loops of the renal medulla. There, salt and water are reabsorbed to make urine and released into the collecting duct. These brain into the renal pelvis, which opens into the ureter artery v. The cardiovascular system pumps blood to the kidneys via the renal vi. Kidneys also produce renin, a hormone that regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water and salt vii. Renal vein - Veins connecting the kidney to the inferior vena cava that drain the kidney and carry blood purified by the kidney l. Immune system i. Antibody - A blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen Antigen - A toxin that stimulates an immune response in the body Antigen presenting cell - APC. A cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces Antimicrobial - A substance that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms with minimal damage to the host B cell - Cells that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens Complement - The group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens Dendritic Cell - APCs that present antigen material and present it to T-cells reintroduction response Immunoglobulin - An antibody Macrophage - A large WBC that ingests foreign material Memory Cell - A lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon Plasma Cell - A WBC that produces a single type of antibody T Cell - WBCs that mature in the thymus and participate in immune ii. The innate immune system is a series of nonspecific barriers: physical, cellular, and soluble components. If a pathogen breaches these barriers, internal barriers and interferons complement, which causes antibodies binding to the pathogen. This causes inflammation, leading to fever, and NK (natural killer) cells attacking host cells along with phagocytic cells that digest pathogens. Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to PAMPs through toll like receptors and trigger inflammation or antigen presentation iii. The adaptive immune system’s functional cells are lymphocytes called T cells and B cells. APCs digest pathogens and present the antigen signature to “helper” T cells. a. Spelling i. Homograph - Word spelled the same but that have different meanings (bat, bow) Homophone - Words pronounced the same but that have different meanings b. Punctuation i. Colon - Used in introduction of a quote or list, ratio, and time. ii. Comma before “and” in a simple series of items (commas, colons, and...) c. Sentence structures i. Adverb - Word or phrase that describes or modifies an adjective, verb, or another adverb Article - Words (a and an) that refer to nouns Complement - Sentence part that gives more information about a subject or object Conjunction - A connecting word Dependent Clause - A group of words that includes a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence Independent Clause - A group of words that includes a subject and predicate and can stand alone as a complement sentence Indirect Object - The person or thing to whom or which something is done Interjection - Words or phrases that represent short bursts of emotion Modifier - A word or group of words that provides description for another word Object - A word or group of words that receives the action of a verb Predicate - The part of a sentence that explains what the subject does or is like Preposition - A word that describes relationships between other words Pronoun - A word that takes the place of a noun Subject - The main noun of a sentence that is doing or being Compound-Complex Sentence - Sentence that includes two independent and one dependent clause ii. Example: “The cute, furry dog wagged its tail with joy.” • Simple subject - dog Article and modifiers - the cute, furry dog Simple predicate - wagged Complete predicate and direct object - its tail Prepositional modifier - with joy d. Grammar i. Diction - The style of writing determined by word choice Fragment - An incomplete sentence Perfective - A verb for an object that has been completed Prescriptive grammar - Specific rules for using language and grammar Progressive - A verb that shows something is currently happening Tense - Past, present, and future times Transition word - Words that link or introduce ideas Subject-verb agreement - Matching like numbers of subjects and verbs: singular with singular, plural with plural Pronoun-Antecedent agreement - Matching like numbers of pronouns and their antecedents: singular with singular, plural with plural. Colloquialism - An informal word or phrase Second person - A narrative mode that addresses the reader as “you” e. Analyzed Word Parts i. Affix - Letters placed at the beginning or end of a word or word part to change its meaning Derivation - Determining the origin of a word Inflection - Details of how a word is expressed to modify its tone or meaning Morpheme - The smallest meaningful unit in grammar Prefix - An affix that appears at the beginning of the word Root - A word to which an affix can be attached Suffix - An affix that appears at the end of a word

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